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Nature and society / Wolves in the Balkans

Elma Zećo

The settlement of wolves in the Balkans is associated with the arrival of the first human communities in the area, but their history as well as their distribution have never been fully elucidated.

The gray wolf, which lives here and moves through the Dinaric massif through BiH, Croatia, western Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Romania, western and southern Bulgaria, is considered a descendant of the first real wolf to appear in nature almost two million years ago. and the former cult of the ancient Slavs.
Rapid extinction

Haunted for centuries, the wolf population has been reduced and limited to the remnants of large forest areas of Eastern Europe, the Balkan Peninsula, the mountainous and semi-desert regions of the Middle East, Russia and China, Canada, Alaska and the Great Lakes region of the United States. Thanks to the protection programs of the European Union, it manages to increase its distribution and number in Europe.

Dr. Sci. Nedim Šuta, a senior assistant at the Department of Biology at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, who participated in the production of several scientific publications on wolves in the Balkans, says that he is a native of BiH. It lives in the mountain zone, mostly in the northern parts of the Dinaric Massif, while in the lowland parts of Posavina it is only sporadically encountered.

“However, no matter how many people are present, the wolf communities are not numerous, which is a consequence of the great action of taming wolves in all ways provoked not only in our country after the Second World War. As the wolf plays an important role in preserving the balance of natural ecosystems, which disrupts its removal from the environment, it is extremely important to preserve its population in the Balkans, “says Nedim, continuing:

"The wolf differs from other predators in that it analyzes the condition of potential prey well and almost never attacks completely healthy individuals. By its behavior it contributes to the health of the prey population and creates better nutritional conditions for other animals. He uses scents to clearly mark the border of the territory, the map of movement and ownership of food, and the sense of smell is 100,000 times more than a human. In a complex system of communication, everyone has a role to play: it is known exactly which member of the brine for young people, which members defend the common territory and how to cooperatively destroy prey larger than themselves. They spend about 35 percent of their time searching for prey, often crossing 30 to 40 kilometers a day, sometimes more than 160, if the prey population is sparse, as is the case in certain BiH territories, where the main food source is domestic animals or food. at local landfills. ”

Unfortunately, due to the lack of systematic ecological research, almost nothing is known about the ecology of wolves in BiH, where, as in the rest of the Balkans, 90 percent of the wolf population ends their lives through human violence.

“Apart from man, the wolf has no other enemy in nature. The status of this beautiful and fascinating species in our country is different and uncertain because the authorities do not understand its significance. For example, in the territory of RS, the wolf is a completely unprotected species, which means that it is open in this field of life throughout the year, even in periods when they have young. In the Federation of BiH, the wolf has the status of a hunting species protected by hunting, so that love for women and young people is prohibited in the period from February 28 to June 30, while hunting for males is constantly open. The lack of active management of wolf populations, as well as the implementation of damage prevention programs, will contribute to the rapid extinction of these species in our area, which will have catastrophic consequences for the entire ecosystem. “
Dr. Nedim Šuta – undefined

Back in the middle news it came to our voice. Man then begins to view himself as someone who endangers his existence, that is, someone who is an animal that man considered only his own – the domestic animal and certain wildlife. In addition to reducing the wolf population by extermination campaigns, one also contributed to its demonization. No, a large predator under normal circumstances does not actually pose a danger to man, because man is not interested in it. The exception may be situations where the wolf is prey in the forest or if it keeps the remains of the prey in the forest.

In the event of an accidental encounter with a wolf in the woods, it is enough to remain calm. The wolf will move away after passing the exam, while a man due to feelings of discomfort and fear may slowly begin to move away by signaling the wolf with loud applause and shouts.

“The formation of a realistic attitude towards the wolf depends on getting acquainted with the facts, and in order for its biological characteristics and ecological significance to come to the fore, we must work on the number of local populations and manage them across borders. Therefore, the launch of systematic research on the ecology of this predatory species in BiH is one of the imperatives. The obtained results would serve as a basis for the adoption of modern management plans for the purpose of sustainable use and preservation of the Dinaric-Balkan wolf population in BiH, as well as in the entire area of the Dinarides and the Balkans, “concludes Dr. Nedim Šuta.

Priroda i društvo / Vukovi na Balkanu | Radio Sarajevo

Elma Zećo

Naseljavanje vukova na Balkanu povezuje se s dolaskom prvih ljudskih zajednica na ovo područje, no njihova historija kao i rasprostranjenost nikada nisu u potpunosti razjašnjene.

Sivi vuk, koji ovdje živi i kreće se Dinarskim masivom kroz BiH, Hrvatsku, zapadnu Srbiju, Crnu Goru, Makedoniju, Albaniju, Rumuniju, zapadnu i južnu Bugarsku, smatra se potomkom prvog pravog vuka koji se pojavio u prirodi prije skoro dva miliona godina, te nekadašnjim kultom starih Slavena.
Rapidno izumiranje

Progonjena vijekovima, vučija populacija se smanjila i ograničena je na ostatke velikih šumskih područja istočne Evrope, planinskog pojasa Balkanskog poluotoka, planinske i polupustinjske predjele Srednjeg istoka, Rusije i Kine, Kanade, Aljaske i područja Velikih jezera SAD-a. Tek zahvaljujući programima zaštite Evropske unije uspijeva povećati svoju rasprostranjenost i brojnost u Evropi.

Dr. sci. Nedim Šuta, viši asistent na Odsjeku za biologiju Prirodno-matematičkog fakulteta, koji je učestvovao u izradi više naučnih publikacija o vukovima na Balkanu, kaže da je u BiH vuk starosjedilac. Obitava u planinskoj zoni, najviše na sjevernim dijelovima Dinarskog masiva, dok se u nizijskim dijelovima Posavine samo sporadično susreće.

“Međutim, koliko god bile prisutne, vučije zajednice nisu brojne, što je posljedica velikih akcija tamanjenja vukova svim načinima provođenim ne samo kod nas nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. Kako vuk igra važnu ulogu u očuvanju balansa prirodnih ekosistema, koji se remeti njegovim odstranjivanjem iz životne sredine, izuzetno je važno očuvati njegovu populaciju na Balkanu”, govori Nedim, nastavljajući:

“Vuk se razlikuje od ostalih predatora po tome što dobro analizira stanje potencijalnog plijena i skoro nikada ne napada potpuno zdrave jedinke. Svojim ponašanjem doprinosi zdravlju populacije plijena i stvara bolje prehrambene okolnosti za druge životinje. Mirise koristi kako bi jasno označio granicu teritorija, mapu kretanja i vlasništvo hrane, a čulo mirisa mu je 100.000 puta jače nego kod čovjeka. U složenom sistemu komunikacije svako ima svoju ulogu: tačno se zna koji član se brine za mlade, koji članovi brane zajedničku teritoriju i kako kooperativno srušiti plijen veći od njih samih. Na potragu za plijenom troše oko 35 posto svog vremena često prelazeći dnevno 30 do 40 kilometara, nekad i više od 160, ako je populacija plijena rijetka, što je slučaj na određenim teritorijama BiH, gdje im glavni izvor hrane predstavljaju domaće životinje, ili hranu nalaze na lokalnim deponijama smeća.”

Nažalost, uslijed nepostojanja sistematskih ekoloških istraživanja gotovo se ništa ne zna o ekologiji vuka u BiH, gdje, kao i u ostatku Balkana, 90 posto vučije populacije život okonča nasilnim djelovanjem čovjeka.

“Osim čovjeka, vuk nema drugog neprijatelja u prirodi. Status žaštite ove predivne i fascinantne vrste u našoj zemlji je različit i neodređen zato što vlasti ne shvataju njegov značaj. Recimo, na teritoriji RS-a vuk je potpuno nezaštićena vrsta, što znači da je na ovu životinju lov otvoren tokom cijele godine, čak i u periodima kada imaju mlade. U Federaciji BiH, vuk ima status lovostajem zaštićene vrste i to tako što je na ženke i mlade zabranjen lov u periodu od 28. februara do 30. juna, dok je na mužijake stalno otvoren lov. Nepostojanje aktivnog upravljanja populacijama vuka kao i primjene programa prevencije šteta, doprinijet će rapidnom izumiranju ove vrste na našem području, što će imati katastrofalne posljedice na cijeli ekosistem.”

Još u srednjem vijeku vuk je došao na loš glas. Čovjek ga tada počinje posmatrati kao nekog ko ugrožava njegovu egzistenciju, odnosno, nekog ko jede životinje koje je čovjek smatrao samo svojim – domaće životinje i određene divlje životinje. Osim što su kampanje istrebljivanja smanjile vučiju populaciju, one su doprinijele i njenom demoniziranju. No, veliki predator u normalnim okolnostima zapravo ne predstavlja opasnost za čovjeka, jer ga čovjek ne interesuje. Izuzetak mogu biti situacije kada vuk jede plijen u šumi, ili ako u šumi čuva ostatke plijena.

Prilikom slučajnog susreta s vukom u šumi, dovoljno je ostati miran. Vuk će se udaljiti nakon što ispita položaj, dok se čovjek zbog osjećaja nelagode i straha može polako početi udaljavati signaliziranjem vuku glasnim pljeskanjem i povicima.

“Formiranje realnog odnosa prema vuku ovisi o upoznavanju sa činjenicama, a kako bi njegove biološke karakteristike i ekološki značaj došli do izražaja mora se poraditi na brojnosti lokalnih populacija i njima prekogranično upravljati. Stoga pokretanje sistematskih istraživanja ekologije ove predatorske vrste na prostorima BiH predstavlja jedan od imperativa. Dobijeni rezultati poslužili bi kao osnova za donošenje savremenih upravljačkih planova u svrhu održivog korištenja i očuvanja dinarsko-balkanske vučije populacije u BiH, kao i na cjelokupnom prostoru Dinarida i Balkana”, završava dr. Nedim Šuta.

via Priroda i društvo / Vukovi na Balkanu | Radio Sarajevo