An animal hunted for sport. The term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, from the generic meaning of Old English gamen ;”joy, amusement, sport, merriment”.
Ice-like crystalline minerals that form when low molecular weight gas (such as methane, ethane, or carbon dioxide) combines with water and freezes into a solid under low temperature and moderate pressure conditions. Most gas hydrates are formed from methane (CH4), which has led to the terms “gas hydrate” and “methane hydrate” often being used interchangeably.
On Earth, gas hydrates occur naturally in some marine sediments and within and beneath permafrost. They are also speculated to form on other planets.
For us, hydrate deposits are important for a variety of reasons: Gas hydrate deposits may contain roughly twice the carbon contained in all reserves of coal, oil, and conventional natural gas combined, making them a potentially valuable energy resource. Their decomposition can release large amounts of methane, which is a greenhouse gas that could impact Earth’s climate. Sudden release of pressurized methane gas may cause submarine landslides, which in turn can trigger tsunamis. Gas hydrates in the ocean can be associated with unusual and possibly unique biological communities that use hydrocarbons or hydrogen sulfide for carbon and energy, via a process known as chemosynthesis.
NOAA Ocean Exploration and Research
General Circulation Models
“Climate models are based on well-documented physical processes to simulate the transfer of energy and materials through the climate system. Climate models, also known as general circulation models or GCMs, use mathematical equations to characterize how energy and matter interact in different parts of the ocean, atmosphere, land. Building and running a climate model is complex process of identifying and quantifying Earth system processes, representing them with mathematical equations, setting variables to represent initial conditions and subsequent changes in climate forcing, and repeatedly solving the equations using powerful supercomputers.”
“Numerical models (General Circulation Models or GCMs), representing physical processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and land surface, are the most advanced tools currently available for simulating the response of the global climate system to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. While simpler models have also been used to provide globally- or regionally-averaged estimates of the climate response, only GCMs, possibly in conjunction with nested regional models, have the potential to provide geographically and physically consistent estimates of regional climate change which are required in impact analysis.
GCMs depict the climate using a three dimensional grid over the globe, typically having a horizontal resolution of between 250 and 600 km, 10 to 20 vertical layers in the atmosphere and sometimes as many as 30 layers in the oceans. Their resolution is thus quite coarse relative to the scale of exposure units in most impact assessments.”
General Systems Theory
The interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts that is either natural or man-made. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose or nature and expressed in its functioning.
A principal taxonomic category that ranks above species and below family, and is denoted by a capitalized Latin name. Wolves are of the genus – Canis.
The practice of eating earth or soil-like substrates such as clay or chalk. It occurs in non-human animals where it may be a normal or abnormal behaviour.
Fetal development period from the time of conception until birth. For wolves, the full gestation period is 62-63 days. The word “gestation” comes from the Latin “gestare” meaning “to carry or to bear.”
Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide next-generation observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the GPM Core Observatory satellite on February 27th, 2014, carrying advanced instruments that set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide is used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world.
The GPM mission contributes to advancing our understanding of Earth’s water and energy cycles, improves the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extends current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society.
Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
The geographical area including parts or all of: Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Beaverhead, Gallatin, Custer, Shoshone, Bridger-Teton and Caribou National Forests, and various National Wildlife Refuges; the headwaters of three major river systems: the Yellowstone, the Snake and the Green Rivers; and parts or all of the Salt River, Northern Rocky, Absaroka and Wild River Mountain Ranges. Greater Yellowstone encompasses an area roughly the size of West Virginia and is home to some of the world’s most unique wild lands and wildlife that together constitute one of the earth’s most diverse and dynamic natural regions.
International Wolf Center Glossary
The type of hair is the longer and stiffer outer hairs called primary hairs. Primary hairs are also referred to as guard hairs, outer hairs, or outer coat. Guard hairs keep the undercoat from getting dirty and wet from rain or snow.
Intra-hair stable isotope analysis implies seasonal shift to salmon in gray wolf diet. Darimont CT, Reimchen TE. Canadian Journal of zoology. 2002 Sep
The natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.
The immediate and direct release of wolves into a new environment. The hard release method was used in central Idaho when wild wolves were brought from Canada and released without spending a period of time in “holding pens.”
Outcomes of hard and soft releases of reintroduced wolves in central Idaho and the Greater Yellowstone Area. Fritts SH, Mack CM, Smith DW, Murphy KM, Phillips MK, Jimenez MD, Bangs EE, Fontaine JA, Niemeyer CC, Brewster WG, Kaminski TJ. Maehr, DS, Noss, RF & Larkin, JL (Eds.). 2001 Oct
The intentional gathering of plants and natural resources, and killing of animals. In wildlife management, hunting is one form of harvesting in which animals are killed. The term harvesting is used as a synonym for the word hunting.
Biological, conservation, and ethical implications of exploiting and controlling wolves; GC Haber – Conservation Biology, 1996 – Wiley Online Library
Harvest rate is equal to the amount of food obtained per unit time, and in feeding patches where an individual experiences diminishing returns, it relates to the marginal value of the patch for the forager (Brown, 1988)
Harvest rates and foraging strategy of Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in an artificial food patch. Bernal-Páez C, Sánchez F. Behavioural processes. 2018 Dec
High Arctic. The geographic area north of 75°N latitude.