The Wolf Intelligencer


Poland – Polska

Wolves in National Parks, Forests and Reserves of Poland
Wolves in Bialowieża National Park and Primeval Forest
Babia Góra National Park / Babiogórski Park Narodowy
Bieszczady National Park / Bieszczadzki Park Narodowy
Drawa National Park / Drawieński Park Narodowy
Gorce National Park / Gorczański Park Narodowy
Stołowe Mountains National Park / Park Narodowy Gór Stołowych
Magura National Park / Magurski Park Narodowy
Roztocze National Park / Roztoczański Park Narodowy
Świętokrzyski National Park / Świętokrzyski Park Narodowy
Tatra National Park / Tatrzański Park Narodowy

Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Eurasion Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)
Wilk szary

Population Statistics
statystyka demograficzna [1,500]

Legal Status; Protected
Status prawny

Ministerstwo Środowiska Polska
Regionalnej Dyrekcji Ochrony Środowiska w Gdańsku
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The Association for Nature WOLF (AfN WOLF)
Stowarzyszenie dla Natury „Wilk
Pracownia na rzecz Wszytskich lstot (Bystra, Poland)

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Wolf and Wildlife News from Poland – Polska

Journal Article

The First Record of Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) Tapeworms in Grey Wolf (Canis lupus). Karamon J, Samorek-Pieróg M, Sroka J, Bilska-Zając E, Dąbrowska J, Kochanowski M, Różycki M, Zdybel J, Cencek T. Pathogens. 2021 Jul


The aim of this study is to confirm the presence and molecular identification of Echinococcus tapeworms in wolves from south-eastern Poland. An investigation was carried out on the intestines of 13 wolves from south-eastern Poland. The small intestines were divided into three equal segments. Each segment was separately examined using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The detected Echinococcus tapeworms were isolated and identified by PCRs and sequencing (nad1 and cox1 genes). Additionally, DNA isolated from the feces of wolves positive for Echinococcus tapeworms was examined with two diagnostic PCRs. The intestines of one wolf were positive for E. granulosus s.l. when assessed by SCT; the intestine was from a six-year-old male wolf killed in a communication accident. We detected 61 adult tapeworms: 42 in the anterior, 14 in the middle, and 5 in the posterior parts of the small intestine. The PCRs conducted for cox1 and nad1 produced specific products. A sequence comparison with the GenBank database showed similarity to the deposited E. ortleppi (G5) sequences. An analysis of the available phylogenetic sequences showed very little variation within the species of E. ortleppi (G5), and identity ranged from 99.10% to 100.00% in the case of cox1 and from 99.04% to 100.00% in the case of nad1. One of the two diagnostic PCRs used and performed on the feces of Echinococcus-positive animals showed product specific for E. granulosus. This study showed the presence of adult E. ortleppi tapeworms in wolves for the first time

Use of camera traps as a biodiversity measurement tool in Gorce National park, southern Poland. Karužić, I., Basak, S., Loch, J., Armatys, P., Czarnota, P. and Wierzbowska, I., 2021


The non-invasive methods, which do not need direct access and harassment of animals, are essential for biodiversity monitoring. For mammals, analyses of scats and hair samples, tracking and recording by remote cameras are among the most commonly used. The study aimed to verify the current status of animal populations using camera traps in Gorce National Park (GNP), located in the Polish Carpathians covered with the natural beech and spruce mountain forests. On average, 35 passive infra-red camera traps annually were deployed in GNP. The archived data from the period of December 2013 to December 2017 was processed. In total, there were 21087 recordings of animals with 23 different taxa of mammals including 17 large and medium-sized species. Shannon’s diversity index was H´= 1.908. Among ungulates, the most commonly observed species were red deer (Cervus elaphus; n=7898), followed wild Boar (Sus scrofa; n=526) and Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n=482). Three large carnivores i.e., grey wolf (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) were all regularly observed, though they belong to rare species in Poland and other neighbouring countries. The use of camera traps allowed us to distinguish lynx individuals and estimate the size of its local population. The European wildcat (Felis silvestris) which was not observed in GNP since the 90s, was surprisingly recorded by camera traps in 2015 and 2016. Additionally, we registered raccoon (Procyon lotor), an invasive alien species in Poland, which can pose a potential threat to local fauna. Similarly, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) were free-ranging in GNP without any confinement and far from the nearest human settlements. The collected information helped to improve management and conservation measures by GNP. We showed that this non-invasive method is particularly useful for the monitoring of elusive and individually recognizable animal species.

Occurrence of Echinococcus spp. in red foxes and wolves in the protected area of the Tatra National Park in southern Poland–a threat to human health. Zwijacz-Kozica T, Sałamatin R.


Echinococcus multilocularis has been endemic in red foxes in eastern and central parts of Europe, and E. granulosus s. l. identified in wolves in some countries. In recent years, wolves hale emerged as potentially important definitive hosts of E. multilocularis.

This aim of the survey was to record indirectly using nested-PCR test with faecal samples the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus s. l. in the two species of wild canids in the protected area of the Tatra National Park (TNP) in Western Carpathian, southern mountainous part of Poland.

Material and methods:
From February to June 2019, experienced staff of TNP randomly collected fox and wolf faeces on and off hiking trails at altitudes from 850 m to 2,000 m above sea level. In total, 91 faecal samples from red foxes and 19 from wolves were collected. Genomic DNA was obtained by direct extraction from faecal samples using a commercial kit, and from taeniid eggs retrieved from the same samples after flotation.

A nested PCR screening of 91 red fox faeces indicated the prevalence of E. multilocularis of 4.4%. Positive samples were confirmed by sequencing parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Neither genomic DNA of E. multilocularis nor of E. granulosus s.l. was obtained from 19 wolves faeces, nor from taeniid eggs retrieved from these samples by initial flotation.

The current results show that humans might be exposed to a risk of fox tapeworm infection in nature, even at high altitude inan alpine zone, in an environment contaminated by roaming red foxes encouraged by food leftovers on mountain trails.

Dynamic range expansion leads to establishment of a new, genetically distinct wolf population in Central Europe. Szewczyk M, Nowak S, Niedźwiecka N, Hulva P, Špinkytė-Bačkaitienė R, Demjanovičová K, Bolfíková BČ, Antal V, Fenchuk V, Figura M, Tomczak P. Scientific reports. 2019 Dec

Wolf Recovery in The Swietokrzyskie Mountains Knowledge, Education and Conservation, Major, Jacek; Gula, Roman; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Milanowski, Artur; Bracik, Tomasz, Technical Report 2019 Dec

The best snacks for kids: the importance of beavers Castor fiber in the diet of wolf Canis lupus pups in north-western Poland. Mysłajek RW, Tomczak P, Tołkacz K, Tracz M, Tracz M, Nowak S. Ethology Ecology & Evolution. 2019 Jun

Wolves, Humans, and the Democratization of Poland: Anti-Wolf Policies and Social Change in Poland, 1918–1960. Stolarz RP. The Polish Review. 2019 Jan

[HTML] Wolves and Tree Logs: Landscape-Scale and Fine-Scale Risk Factors Interactively Influence Tree Regeneration; HAL van Ginkel, DPJ Kuijper, J Schotanus, C Smit – Ecosystems, 2018

Spatial organization in wolves Canis lupus recolonizing north-west Poland: Large territories at low population density
RW Mysłajek, M Tracz, M Tracz, P Tomczak… – Mammalian Biology, 2018


Sedentary but not dispersing wolves Canis lupus recolonizing western Poland (2001–2016) conform to the predictions of a habitat suitability model. Nowak S, Mysłajek RW, Szewczyk M, Tomczak P, Borowik T, Jędrzejewska B. Diversity and Distributions. 2017 Nov

[HTML] Deficiencies in Natura 2000 for protecting recovering large carnivores: A spotlight on the wolf Canis lupus in Poland;TA Diserens, T Borowik, S Nowak, M Szewczyk… – PloS one, September 5, 2017

[PDF] Sedentary but not dispersing wolves Canis lupus recolonizing western Poland (2001–2016) conform to the predictions of a habitat suitability model; S Nowak, RW Mysłajek, M Szewczyk, P Tomczak… – Diversity and Distributions. August 2017

Utilisation of a wide underpass by mammals on an expressway in the Western Carpathians, S Poland. Mysłajek RW, Nowak S, Kurek K, Tołkacz K, Gewartowska O. Folia Zoologica. 2016 Nov

Wolf recovery and population dynamics in Western Poland, 2001–2012. Nowak S, Mysłajek RW. Mammal Research. 2016 Apr

Concordant mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA structuring between Polish lowland and Carpathian Mountain wolves. Czarnomska SD, Jędrzejewska B, Borowik T, Niedziałkowska M, Stronen AV, Nowak S, Mysłajek RW, Okarma H, Konopiński M, Pilot M, Śmietana W. Conservation Genetics. 2013 Jun

Prey choice and diet of wolves related to ungulate communities and wolf subpopulations in Poland. Jędrzejewski W, Niedziałkowska M, Hayward MW, Goszczyński J, Jędrzejewska B, Borowik T, Bartoń KA, Nowak S, Harmuszkiewicz J, Juszczyk A, Kałamarz T. Journal of Mammalogy. 2012 Dec

Diet and prey selection of wolves (Canis lupus) recolonising Western and Central Poland S Nowak, RW Mysłajek, A Kłosińska… – … Biology-Zeitschrift für …, 2011

Analyses of least cost paths for determining effects of habitat types on landscape permeability: wolves in Poland. Huck M, Jędrzejewski W, Borowik T, Jędrzejewska B, Nowak S, Mysłajek RW. Acta Theriologica. 2011 Jan

A GIS assessment and modelling of environmental sensitivity of recreational trails: The case of Gorce National Park, Poland. Tomczyk AM. Applied geography. 2011 Jan

Diet and prey selection of wolves (Canis lupus) recolonising Western and Central Poland S Nowak, RW Mysłajek, A Kłosińska…Biology-Zeitschrift für …, 2011

A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland. Szafrańska E, Wasielewski O, Bereszyński A. Journal of helminthology. 2010 Dec

Reproductive behaviour of wild-living wolves in Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland)
K Schmidt, W Jędrzejewski, J Theuerkauf… – Journal of Ethology, 2008

Habitat suitability model for Polish wolves based on long‐term national census. Jędrzejewski W, Jędrzejewska B, Zawadzka B, Borowik T, Nowak S, Mysłajek RW. Animal Conservation. 2008 Oct;

Territory size of wolves Canis lupus: linking local (Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland) and Holarctic‐scale patterns;WJ ędrzejewski, K Schmidt, J Theuerkauf… – …, 2007

Daily movements and territory use by radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in Bialowieza Primeval Forest in Poland; W Jedrzejewski, K Schmidt… – … Journal of Zoology, 2001 – NRC Research Press, 2001

Prey selection and predation by wolves in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland
WŁ Jȩdrzejewski, BŁ Jȩdrzejewska, H Okarma, K Schmidt, K Zub, …; Journal of Mammalogy 81 (1), 197-212; 179, 2000

Potential impact of wolves Canis lupus on prey populations in eastern Poland. Głowaciński Z, Profus P. Biological conservation. 1997 Apr

Population dynamics of wolves Canis lupus in Bialowieża Primeval Forest (Poland and Belarus) in relation to hunting by humans, 1847–1993; B Jęodrzejewska, W Jęodrzejewski… – Mammal …, 1996

Status and management of the wolf in Poland. Okarma H. Biological Conservation. 1993 Jan

Marrow fat content, sex and age of red deer killed by wolves in winter in the Carpathian Mountains. Okarma H. Ecography. 1991 Jul;

Distribution and numbers of wolves in Poland. Okarma H. Acta Theriologica. 1989 Dec


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