The Wolf Intelligencer


Scandinavia and Greenland

Denmark / Finland / Norway / Sweden / Greenland

Journal Articles

From high masked to high realized genetic load in inbred Scandinavian wolves. Smeds L, Ellegren H. Molecular Ecology. 2022 Jul


When new mutations arise at functional sites they are more likely to impair than improve fitness. If not removed by purifying selection, such deleterious mutations will generate a genetic load that can have negative fitness effects in small populations and increase the risk of extinction. This is relevant for the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population, founded by only three wolves in the 1980s and suffering from inbreeding depression. We used functional annotation and evolutionary conservation scores to study deleterious variation in a total of 209 genomes from both the Scandinavian and neighbouring wolf populations in northern Europe. The masked load (deleterious mutations in heterozygote state) was highest in Russia and Finland with deleterious alleles segregating at lower frequency than neutral variation. Genetic drift in the Scandinavian population led to the loss of ancestral alleles, fixation of deleterious variants and a significant increase in the per-individual realized load (deleterious mutations in homozygote state; an increase by 45% in protein-coding genes) over five generations of inbreeding. Arrival of immigrants gave a temporary genetic rescue effect with ancestral alleles re-entering the population and thereby shifting deleterious alleles from homozygous into heterozygote genotypes. However, in the absence of permanent connectivity to Finnish and Russian populations, inbreeding has then again led to the exposure of deleterious mutations. These observations provide genome-wide insight into the magnitude of genetic load and genetic rescue at the molecular level, and in relation to population history. They emphasize the importance of securing gene flow in the management of endangered populations.

Characteristics of reproductive organs and estimates of reproductive potential in Scandinavian male grey wolves (Canis lupus). Petersen A, Åkesson M, Axner E, Ågren E, Wikenros C, Dalin AM. Animal Reproduction Science. 2021 Mar

Ecology of Predation and Scavenging and the Interface: A Special Issue. Moleón, M., 2021


Predation and scavenging are pervasive ecological interactions in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The ecology, evolution and conservation of scavengers, and especially predators, have received wide scientific attention and public awareness. However, the close connection that exists between predation and scavenging has not been made explicit until recently [1,2,3]. The propensity to hunt or scavenge a prey may vary within individuals, among different individuals within a population, and among different populations and species, depending on an intricate array of both intrinsic (e.g., morphology, body condition) and extrinsic (e.g., availability of alternative food sources) factors. In turn, the recognition that carnivorous animals may obtain meat by either hunting prey or scavenging their carcasses has profound implications, from individual morphology, physiology, and behavior to population, community, and ecosystem structure and functioning [1,2,3,4,5].
Given the novelty of this integrative research topic, many relevant questions have yet to be resolved. This Special Issue, through the three research papers and the three reviews that comprise it, aims to deal with some of these questions from diverse perspectives and methodological approaches.

Roads, forestry, and wolves interact to drive moose browsing behavior in Scandinavia. Loosen AE, Devineau O, Zimmermann B, Cromsigt JP, Pfeffer SE, Skarpe C, Marie Mathisen K. Ecosphere. 2021 Jan

Impact of a recolonizing, cross-border carnivore population on ungulate harvest in Scandinavia. Wikenros C, Sand H, Månsson J, Maartmann E, Eriksen A, Wabakken P, Zimmermann B. Scientific Reports. 2020 Dec

Agent-based models predict patterns and identify constraints of large carnivore recolonizations, a case study of wolves in Scandinavia MR Recio, A Singer, P Wabakken, H Sand – Biological Conservation, 2020 Nov

Individual Variation in Predatory Behavior, Scavenging and Seasonal Prey Availability as Potential Drivers of Coexistence between Wolves and Bears. Ordiz A, Milleret C, Uzal A, Zimmermann B, Wabakken P, Wikenros C, Sand H, Swenson JE, Kindberg J.Diversity. 2020 Sep

Agent-based models predict patterns and identify constraints of large carnivore recolonizations, a case study of wolves in Scandinavia MR Recio, A Singer, P Wabakken, H Sand – Biological Conservation, 2020 Nov

No place like home? A test of the natalhabitat-biased dispersal hypothesis inScandinavian wolves.R. Soc. open sci.5: 181379; Sanz-Pe ́rez A, Ordiz A, Sand H,Swenson JE, Wabakken P, Wikenros C,Zimmermann B, A ̊kesson M, Milleret C. 2018

[HTML] Data to model risks for recolonizing wolves in Scandinavia through the integration of territory presence and human-driven mortalities
MR Recio, B Zimmermann, C Wikenros, A Zetterberg… – Data in brief, 2018 – Elsevier

Integrated spatially-explicit models predict pervasive risks to recolonizing wolves in Scandinavia from human-driven mortality; Mariano Rodríguez Recio, Barbara Zimmermann, Camilla Wikenros, Håkan Sand; Article (PDF Available)  in Biological Conservation 226:111-119 · October 2018

Mobility of moose—comparing the effects of wolf predation risk, reproductive status, and seasonality. Wikenros C, Balogh G, Sand H, Nicholson KL, Månsson J. Ecology and evolution. 2016 Dec

Sarcoptic mange in the Scandinavian wolf Canis lupus population; Boris Fuchs, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken, Set Bornstein, Johan Månsson, Alina L Evans, Olof Liberg, Håkan Sand, Jonas Kindberg, Erik Olof Ågren, Jon Martin Arnemo
Article (PDF Available)  in BMC Veterinary Research 12(1) · July 2016

Estimating wolf (Canis lupus) population size from number of packs and an individual based model; Guillaume Chapron, Camilla Wikenros, Olof Liberg, Petter Wabakken, Øystein Flagstad, Cyril Milleret, Johan Månsson, Linn Svensson, Barbara Zimmermann, Mikael Åkesson,Håkan Sand; Article in Ecological Modelling 339:33-44 · November 2016

Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?
Håkan Sand, Ann Eklund, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken
Article (PDF Available)  in PLoS ONE  December 2016

Wolves, people, and brown bears influence the expansion of the recolonizing wolf population in Scandinavia Ordiz A, Milleret C, Kindberg J, Månsson J, Wabakken P, Swenson JE, Sand H.  Ecosphere. 2015 Dec

Ulven som rovdyr på klauvvilt i Skandinavia
Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Wikenros, Camilla; Eriksen, Ane; Strømseth, Tomas H.; Holen, Frode Gjerløv; Maartmann, Erling; Ahlqvist, Per; Arnemo, Jon Martin; Milleret, Cyril; Liberg, Olof; Pedersen, Hans Christian;
Chapter (PDF Available) · January 2014

Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: From food limitation to surplus killing; Barbara Zimmermann; Håkan Sand; Petter Wabakken; Olof Liberg; Harry Peter Andreassen; Article (PDF Available)  in Journal of Animal Ecology 84(1) · August 2014

Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: Scale-dependent ambivalence; Barbara Zimmermann, Lindsey Anne Nelson, Petter Wabakken, Håkan Sand, Olof Liberg
Article (PDF Available)  in Behavioral Ecology 25(6) · October 2014

Home range size variation in a recovering wolf population: evaluating the effect of environmental, demographic, and social factors. Mattisson J, Sand H, Wabakken P, Gervasi V, Liberg O, Linnell JD, Rauset GR, Pedersen HC. Oecologia. 2013 Nov

Decomposing risk: landscape structure and wolf behavior generate different predation patterns in two sympatric ungulates. Gervasi V, Sand H, Zimmermann B, Mattisson J, Wabakken P, Linnell JD. Ecological Applications. 2013 Oct

Sharing the bounty—Adjusting harvest to predator return in the Scandinavian human–wolf–bear–moose system. Jonzén N, Sand H, Wabakken P, Swenson JE, Kindberg J, Liberg O, Chapron G. Ecological modelling. 2013 Sep

Monitoring of wolves in Scandinavia. Liberg, O., Aronson, Å., Sand, H., Wabakken, P., Maartmann, E., Svensson, L. and Åkesson, M., 2012

Multistage, Long‐Range Natal Dispersal by a Global Positioning System‐Collared Scandinavian Wolf; PETTER WABAKKEN, HÅKAN SAND, ILPO KOJOLA, BARBARA ZIMMERMANN, JON M. ARNEMO, HANS, C. PEDERSEN, OLOF LIBERG
Article (PDF Available)  in Journal of Wildlife Management Dec 2010

Wolf Movement Patterns: a Key to Estimation of Kill Rate?; BARBARA ZIMMERMANN, PETTER WABAKKEN, HÅKAN SAND, HANS C. PEDERSEN, and OLOF LIBERG; Article in Journal of Wildlife Management  Dec 2010

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in gray wolves in Scandinavia. Björkman C, Jakubek EB, Arnemo JM, Malmsten J. Veterinary parasitology. 2010 Oct

Encounter frequencies between GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) and moose (Alces alces) in a Scandinavian wolf territory; Ane Eriksen, Petter Wabakken, Barbara Zimmermann, Harry P. Andreassen, Jon M. Arnemo, Hege Gundersen, Jos M. Milner, Olof Liberg, John Linnell, Hans C. Pedersen, Håkan Sand, Erling J. Solberg, Torstein Storaas;Article (PDF Available)  in Ecological Research 24(3):547-557 · September 2009

Wolf predation on moose and Roe deer: chase distances and outcome of encounters C Wikenros, H Sand, P Wabakken, O Liberg… – Acta Theriologica, 2009

Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine, following recolonization of wolves. Van Dijk J, Gustavsen L, Mysterud A, May R, Flagstad Ø, Brøseth H, Andersen R, Andersen R, Steen H, Landa A. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2008 Nov

Public attitudes and the future of wolves Canis lupus in Sweden. Heberlein TA, Ericsson G. Wildlife Biology. 2008 Sep

Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: Can we rely on winter estimates?; Sand H, Wabakken P, Zimmermann B, Johansson O, Pedersen HC, Liberg O.; Article (PDF Available)  in Oecologia 156(1):53-64 · Jun 2008

Multistage, long‐range natal dispersal by a global positioning system‐collared Scandinavian wolf. Wabakken P, Sand H, Kojola I, Zimmermann B, Arnemo JM, Pedersen HC, Liberg O.The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2007 Jul

Predicting occurrence of wolf territories in Scandinavia. Karlsson J, Brøseth H, Sand H, Andrén H. Journal of Zoology. 2007 Jul

Diet composition of wolves (Canis lupus) on the Scandinavian peninsula determined by scat analysis. Müller S. English summary of the diploma thesis, School of Forest Science and Resource Management, Technical University of München, Germany. 2006.

The costs and benefits of animal predation: an analysis of Scandinavian wolf re-colonization. Skonhoft A. Ecological economics. 2006 Jul

Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant. Vila C, Sundqvist AK, Flagstad Ø, Seddon J, rnerfeldt SB, Kojola I, Casulli A, Sand H, Wabakken P, Ellegren H. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 2003 Jan

Biomedical protocol for free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia. Norges Veterinærhøyskole, Arnemo JM, Fahlman Å. Tromsø. 2004

The recovery, distribution, and population dynamics of wolves on the Scandinavian peninsula, 1978-1998. Wabakken P, Sand H, Liberg O, Bjärvall A. Canadian Journal of zoology. 2001 Apr

%d bloggers like this: