Alaska – Beringia / Northern Rocky Mountains (USA) / Great Lakes Region (USA) / West Coast of United States / Southwest USA & Mexico / Eastern United States / Canada / Europe / Scandinavia & Greenland / Eastern Europe & Russia / India & East Asia / Middle East / Africa
Courtesy ICUN Red List
Originally, the Grey Wolf was the world’s most widely distributed mammal, living throughout the northern hemisphere north of 15°N latitude in North America and 12°N in India. It has become extinct in much of Western Europe (Boitani 1995), in Mexico and much of the USA (Mech 1970). Their present distribution is more restricted: wolves occur primarily in wilderness and remote areas, especially in Canada, Alaska and northern USA, Europe, and Asia from about 75°N to 12°N.
Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Myanmar; Nepal; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Yemen
Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Ireland; Japan; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Switzerland; United Kingdom
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2400
The Wolf, including all species of Grey Wolf as well as the Red Wolf, Indian Wolf, Himalayan Wolf, Golden African Wolf and Ethiopian Wolf has had an extensive historical geographic distribution rivaling any other mammal outside of people.
The Gray Wolf (Canis Lupus) inhabits the Northern Hemisphere, north of 15-20 latitude. In the 19th and 20th centuries, gray wolves were hunted down and extirpated from much of their historical range. Their populations were restricted to remote areas with sparse human numbers. In recent years, with human intervention, reintroduction and protection, wolves have started to recolonize some parts of their former range.
The Red Wolf’s (Canis Rufus) historic known range extended to the better part of South -Eastern United States, although genetic evidence has shown an historic range well up into South -Eastern Ontario, Canada. Red Wolves now only exist in the wild in a reintroduced population in eastern North Carolina, US.
The Ethiopian Wolf (Canis Simensis) is one of the rarest canids with a range in the Ethiopian Highlands, specifically isolated to seven mountain ranges at 3,000-4,5000 meter altitudes. The Urgoma Mountains provides habitat for more than half of the Ethiopian Wolf population, restricted to six pockets of afroalpine habitat.