The Wolf Intelligencer

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir



Central European mixed forests ecoregion (Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome) (Palearctic Realm)
East European forest steppe ecoregion (Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome) (Palearctic Realm)
Pontic–Caspian ecoregion steppe (temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Biome)(Palearctic Realm)

Wolves in National Parks and Protected Areas
Orhei National Park
Codru Reserve (Romanian: Rezervaţia Codru; plural: Codrii)

Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Eurasion Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

Population Statistics [ Unknown population. “Calculations show that at present in Moldova theoretically we could have a population, based on the trophic needs of about 45-50 wolves, which could maintain without affecting well protected domestic animals.“]
statistica Populației

Legal Status; The species Canis lupus is included in Annex 3 to the Law no. nr. 1538 XIII of 1998 of State Natural Protected Areas Fund Category monuments of nature, strictly protected fauna
Statut Juridic

Ministerul Mediului al Republicii Moldova
Ministry of Environment of Republic of Moldova
The Clearing-House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CHM) | Sixth National Report

World Wildlife Fund
FLEG Programme | WWF

News Resources & Publications
Resurse de știri și publicații (Chişinău, Moldova)
Sputnik Moldova

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Wolf and Wildlife News from Moldova

Journal Articles

Genome-wide profiles indicate wolf population connectivity within the eastern Carpathian Mountains. Ericson HS, Fedorca A, Toderas I, Hegyeli Z, Plis K, Dykyy I, Jędrzejewska B, Ionescu G, Fedorca M, Iacolina L, Stronen AV.Genetica. 2020 Feb


The Carpathian Mountains provide critical wildlife habitat in central Europe, and previous genome-wide studies have found western Carpathian Mountain wolves (Canis lupus) to be a separate population. Whereas differentiation to the north may be explained by a lowland-mountain transition and habitat fragmentation, the eastern Carpathian Mountains extending through Romania appear to offer continuous wildlife habitat southward. Our objective was to assess gene flow patterns and population connectivity among wolves in Romania, western Ukraine, and the Republic of Moldova. We sought to determine if the Carpathian Mountain region is best described by a north–south gradient in genetic profiles, or whether Romanian wolves show population structure with northern individuals clustering with western Ukraine. We genotyped 48 individuals with 170 000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and successful profiles from Romania (n = 27) and Moldova (n = 2) were merged with existing data from western Ukraine (n = 10). Expected heterozygosity was 0.234 (SE 0.001) for Romania and 0.229 (SE 0.001) for western Ukraine, whereas observed heterozygosity values were 0.230 (SE 0.001) versus 0.231 (SE 0.001). Population structure analyses with a maximum likelihood method supported K = 1 population, followed by K = 2 where Romania formed one cluster, and western Ukraine and Moldova formed another. Principal component analysis results were broadly consistent with K = 2. Pairwise FST between western Ukraine and Romania was 0.042 (p = 0.001). Our findings indicated weak population differentiation, and future research may clarify whether the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in the region is associated with environmental and ecological factors such as terrain ruggedness and the distribution of prey species.

Structure, location and number of wolf population in the Republic of Moldova. Savin A, Grosu G, Caisîn V, Nistreanu V. InSustainable use, protection of animal world and forest management in the context of climate change 2016


Scientific studies have established that ecological changes of the ecosystems related to the presence of top predators such as wolves, can restore the balance in wilderness areas where the presence of characteristic trophic sources (large ungulates) are abundant, increasing their stability and biological diversity. In the conditions of Moldova the return of the wolf in 2000s in anthropized ecosystems on the background of a number of wild ungulates far below optimal limits brought to the decreasing of this number, particularly in places of their concentration, with quite strong impact on the farms. The wolf survey in the last years shows that the wolf population in Moldova can be assessed at about 80-90 specimens and is at the phase of structuring and accommodation toward trophic and shelter conditions with the formation of reproductive nuclei in the central zone (Vașcăuți-Susleni-Tribugeni with the center in forest stand Țaganca; Barnova–Seseni-Isacova; Petrosu–Măgurele-Bursuceni; Cărbuna-RezeniPuhoi; Văsieni–Costești-Sociteni; Strășeni-Sadova-Micleușeni; Garbăvăț-CopancaCăușăni and on left bank of Nistru River in Carmanovo-Colosovo) and in the southern zone (Tomai-Cneazevca-Beștemac; Beșgioz-Tvardița-Djoltai; Taraclia-Carbalia) (fig. 1), dislocated mostly outside forest stands at ecotone areas of agrocenoses. In parallel there were observed the expansion of jackal hounds occurred in the south of the country in the early 2000s, which are increasingly common in Nistru and Prut floodplain area (about 9-10 groups with a number of over 120 jackals). Given the territorial needs of the wolf – no more than two wolves in 10 thousand ha, and to satisfy the correlation of 1:150 between predator and prey for ecological equilibrium conditions, including trophic requirements, it would be need to have 300 deer and wild boar on the republic territory. In central Codri area on about 100 thousand ha around 40 wolves inhabit, forming 6-8 reproductive hounds, thus having a density of four wolves per 10 000 ha. Also, we must acknowledge that the concentration of wolf hounds is observed in areas with a high density of deer, where the wolves’ density is much higher. At the same time, here there were estimated about 240 deer, 2200 roe deers and nearly 500 wild boar, ensuring only half of wolf trophic needs. Thus, it is forced to attack sheepfolds and cattle left without supervising at grazing, as was noticed in spring of this year (2016) near Bardar, Getlova, Susleni, Sociteni, Costești, Căușeni, Harbovăț villages. Sometimes, the wolf also hunts small animals (hares and even domestic birds near localities). Because in these conditions the wolf is not provided with specific trophic sources, in the vegetation period and often in winter the wolves can hunt in small reproductive groups (2-3 individuals), often frequenting the places of storage of meat processing industry waste. This type of adaptive structuring of population, determined by the trophic specificity in anthropic conditions favor a higher percentage of reproductive females and finally a numeric jump of wolf population, which under current conditions is an important factor in annual increase of deer populations that at present became the main trophic object in forest ecosystems as well as in agrocoenoses (along with the reestablishment of “field” ecotype). The main problem is not the damages caused to farms by attacking unprotected animals, but it is in the deacrease of the hunting fauna number and primarily ungulates. Figure 1. Distribution of wolf ( ) and jackal ( ) hounds recorded on the territory of Moldova in the period march 2013 – may 2016 In order to return to a balance in relations between wolves and fauna of ungulates there are required studies on localization of wolves’ hounds, assessment of reproductive process and of mechanisms regulating this process in accordance with the distribution and number of prey species. The mechanism of coexistence of predators in anthropized ecosystems requires the implementation of a strategy to prevent the damage at national level and of compensation systems of damage caused by predators protected by national and international laws in line with the appropriate management of these species. The work was performed within the fundamental project 15.187.0211F.


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