The Wolf Intelligencer


Finland – Suomi


Denmark / Finland / Norway / Sweden / Greenland

Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Eurasion Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)
Tundra Wolf (Canis lupus albas)

Population Statistics [Unknown, 200-235? , 2016]

Legal Status
Oikeudellinen asema

Legally protected at different levels in different parts of Finland directed by the The Habitats Directive of the European Union.
Protecting Wolves in Finland – ECOLOGIST 2020 Jan

The Ministry of the Environment

Finland Department of Wildlife
Suomen Riistakeskus

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö

The Wolf Action Group of the Finnish Nature League (Helsinki, Finland)
Susiryhmä – Luonto-Liitto
Salakaadot seis (Helsinki, Finland)

The Finnish Association for Nature Conservation (FANC) (Helsinki, Finland)
Suomen Luonnonsuojeluliitto

News Resources & Publications
uutisia ja julkaisuja

viimeisimmät uutiset

Wolf and Wildlife News from Finland – Suomi

Journal Articles

From high masked to high realized genetic load in inbred Scandinavian wolves. Smeds L, Ellegren H. Molecular Ecology. 2022 Jul


When new mutations arise at functional sites they are more likely to impair than improve fitness. If not removed by purifying selection, such deleterious mutations will generate a genetic load that can have negative fitness effects in small populations and increase the risk of extinction. This is relevant for the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population, founded by only three wolves in the 1980s and suffering from inbreeding depression. We used functional annotation and evolutionary conservation scores to study deleterious variation in a total of 209 genomes from both the Scandinavian and neighbouring wolf populations in northern Europe. The masked load (deleterious mutations in heterozygote state) was highest in Russia and Finland with deleterious alleles segregating at lower frequency than neutral variation. Genetic drift in the Scandinavian population led to the loss of ancestral alleles, fixation of deleterious variants and a significant increase in the per-individual realized load (deleterious mutations in homozygote state; an increase by 45% in protein-coding genes) over five generations of inbreeding. Arrival of immigrants gave a temporary genetic rescue effect with ancestral alleles re-entering the population and thereby shifting deleterious alleles from homozygous into heterozygote genotypes. However, in the absence of permanent connectivity to Finnish and Russian populations, inbreeding has then again led to the exposure of deleterious mutations. These observations provide genome-wide insight into the magnitude of genetic load and genetic rescue at the molecular level, and in relation to population history. They emphasize the importance of securing gene flow in the management of endangered populations.

Assessing key drivers of human attitudes towards large carnivores in Finland. Heikkilä, S., 2020

Correction to: Balancing costs and confidence: volunteer-provided point observations, GPS telemetry and the genetic monitoring of Finland’s wolves. Kojola I, Heikkinen S, Holmala K. Mammal Research. 2018 Jul

[HTML] Non-invasive genetic monitoring involving citizen science enables reconstruction of current pack dynamics in a re-establishing wolf population
H Granroth-Wilding, C Primmer, M Lindqvist… – BMC Ecology, 2017

Poaching regulates the legally hunted wolf population in Finland; J Suutarinen, I Kojola – Biological Conservation, , 2017 Sep

Nudging the impasse? lessons from the nationwide online wolf management forum in Finland. Salo M, Hiedanpää J, Luoma M, Pellikka J. Society & Natural Resources. 2017 Sep

Community power over conservation regimes: techniques for neutralizing the illegal killing of large carnivores in Finland. Pohja-Mykrä M. Crime, Law and Social Change. 2017 May

Preadaptative Transactions and Institutional Change: Wolf‐critical activism in southwestern Finland. Hiedanpää J, Pellikka J. Environmental Policy and Governance. 2017 May

Payments for improved ecostructure (PIE): Funding for the coexistence of humans and wolves in Finland. Hiedanpää J, Kalliolevo H, Salo M, Pellikka J, Luoma M. Environmental management. 2016 Sep

Wolf visitations close to human residences in Finland: the role of age, residence density, and time of day. Kojola I, Hallikainen V, Mikkola K, Gurarie E, Heikkinen S, Kaartinen S, Nikula A, Nivala V. Biological Conservation. 2016 Jun

Dancing with wolves: Making legal territory in a more-than-human world. Ojalammi S, Blomley N. Geoforum. 2015 Jun

Habitat model for a recolonizing wolf (Canis lupus) population in Finland. In Annales Zoologici Fennici (Vol. 52, No. 1–2, pp. 77-89). Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Kaartinen, S., Antikainen, H. and Kojola, I., 2015, Apr

Tracks in snow and population size estimation: the wolf Canis lupus in Finland. Kojola I, Helle P, Heikkinen S, Lindén H, Paasivaara A, Wikman M. Wildlife Biology. 2014 Oct

Users or producers of ecosystem services? A scenario exercise for integrating conservation and reindeer herding in northeast Finland. Heikkinen HI, Sarkki S, Nuttall M. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2012 Dec

Summer movements, predation and habitat use of wolves in human modified boreal forests. Gurarie E, Suutarinen J, Kojola I, Ovaskainen O. Oecologia. 2011 Apr

The good bad wolf—wolf evaluation reveals the roots of the Finnish wolf conflict. Bisi J, Liukkonen T, Mykrä S, Pohja-Mykrä M, Kurki S. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 2010 Oct

Selection of den sites by wolves in boreal forests in Finland. Kaartinen S, Luoto M, Kojola I. Journal of Zoology. 2010 Jun

Carnivore-livestock conflicts: determinants of wolf (Canis lupus) depredation on sheep farms in Finland. Kaartinen S, Luoto M, Kojola I. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2009 Dec

Genetic structure of the northwestern Russian wolf populations and gene flow between Russia and Finland. Aspi J, Roininen E, Kiiskilä J, Ruokonen M, Kojola I, Bljudnik L, Danilov P, Heikkinen S, Pulliainen E. Conservation Genetics. 2009 Aug

Human dimensions of wolf (Canis lupus) conflicts in Finland. Bisi J, Kurki S, Svensberg M, Liukkonen T. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 2007 Nov

Dispersal in an expanding wolf population in Finland. Kojola I, Aspi J, Hakala A, Heikkinen S, Ilmoni C, Ronkainen S. Journal of Mammalogy. 2006 Apr

Finnish wolves avoid roads and settlements. In Annales Zoologici Fennici (pp. 523-532). Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Kaartinen, S., Kojola, I. and Colpaert, A., 2005, Jan

Predation on European wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by wolves (Canis lupus) in Finland. Kojola I, Huitu O, Toppinen K, Heikura K, Heikkinen S, Ronkainen S. Journal of zoology. 2004 Jul

Interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs C. familiaris in Finland. Kojola I, Ronkainen S, Hakala A, Heikkinen S, Kokko S. Wildlife Biology. 2004 Jun

Is the fear of wolves justified? A Fennoscandian perspective. Linnell JD, Solberg EJ, Brainerd S, Liberg O, Sand H, Wabakken P, Kojola I. Acta Zoologica Lituanica. 2003 Jan

Diet composition of wolves Canis lupus in east-central Finland. Gade-Jorgensen I, Stagegaard R. Acta Theriologica. 2000

Studies on the wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Finland. In Annales Zoologici Fennici (Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 215-259). Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Pulliainen, E., 1965, Jan




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