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Adrenocorticotropin Hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced in the anterior, or front, pituitary gland in the brain. The function of ACTH is to regulate levels of the steroid hormone cortisol, which released from the adrenal gland.

Active Solicitation
Also called “proceptivity.” In the Proestrous stage of breeding wolves, female wolves show behaviors towards a mate in the form of prancing, body rubs and pawing, nuzzling or putting her chin on her mate’s back. As well as presenting her rear to her mate’s nose.

Active Submission
In active submission, the submissive animal approaches another wolf in a low posture, slightly crouched, ears back and close to its head, and tail held low. The submissive wolf wags its tail or hindquarters and attempts to lick or mouth the other wolf’s muzzle. Active submission occurs curs often in “greeting,” during “group ceremonies” in which dominant wolves become the focus of nuzzling, licking, and mouthing about the face by other members of the pack, and as a “nose-push” given by submissive animals toward dominant ones when they are still a few meters away.

L. David Mech;Luigi Boitani. Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (p. 93). Kindle Edition.

AZA (American Zoo and Aquarium Association)
[Mexican Gray Wolves]
An association of zoological parks and aquariums in North America that governs over 100 facilities and oversees the governance of the SSP’s and other captive breeding programs.

AZGFD (Arizona Game and Fish Department)
[Mexican Gray Wolves]
One of the state agencies that participates in the management of the Mexican gray wolf in the recovery area.

BRWRA (Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area)
[Mexican Gray Wolves]
This includes all of the Apache National Forest and all of the Gila National Forest. This area includes over 4 million acres of mountain,s forests, and grasslands within the historic Mexican wolf range in the U.S.