Steppe Wolf (Canis lupus campestris) – (Dwigubski 1804)
Common Names: Caspian Sea Wolf
Overall population: unknown (endangered)
Original range -[Wikipedia] native to the Caspian steppes, the steppe regions of the Caucasus, the lower Volga region, southern Kazakhstan north to the middle of the Emba, the northern Urals, and the steppe regions of the lower European part of the former Soviet Union. It may also occur in northern Afghanistan and Iran and occasionally the steppe regions of Romania and Hungary.
Current range -south-western portion of Russia that borders the northern half of the Caspian Sea.
Habitat / Ecology: Steppe wolves feed on herd ungulates, rodents, fish and berries.
Unique behaviors: Steppe wolves have been known to surplus kill Caspian seals. They are also known to prey on livestock and domestic animals of nomads.
Legal and Cultural Background:The Canis lupus campestris has been hunted as a nuisance for years. It is listed as endangered in the Mongolian Red List of Mamals (2007), and can now only be found in a far south-western part of Russia along the Caspian Sea.
Journal / Scientific Publications:
Protective immune response of oral rabies vaccine in stray dogs, corsacs and steppe wolves after a single immunization; K Zhugunissov, Y Bulatov, D Taranov, Z Yershebulov… – Archives of Virology, 1 August 2017