Vocabulary E-F

A-B / C-D / E-F / G-H / I-J / K-L / M-N / O-P / Q-R / S-T / U-V / W-X / Y-Z

E-F

Ecological Semiotics, Ecosemiotics
Ecosemiotics is a branch of semiotics in its intersection with human ecology that studies the sign relations established by culture, which deal with other living beings, communities, and landscapes.

Ecosystem Integrity
An ecosystem with the ability to maintain its organization in the face of changing environmental conditions, it is said to have integrity. The integrity of an ecosystem does not only reflect a single characteristic of an ecosystem and therefore encompasses a wide set of criteria.

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
A single climate phenomena expressed in three stages. Courtesy of
El Niño:  A warming of the ocean surface, or above-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.  Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to become reduced while rainfall increases over the tropical Pacific Ocean.  The low-level surface winds, which normally blow from east to west along the equator (“easterly winds”), instead weaken or, in some cases, start blowing the other direction (from west to east or “westerly winds”).
La Niña: A cooling of the ocean surface, or below-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.  Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to increase while rainfall decreases over the central tropical Pacific Ocean.  The normal easterly winds along the equator become even stronger.
Neutral:  Neither El Niño or La Niña. Often tropical Pacific SSTs are generally close to average.  However, there are some instances when the ocean can look like it is in an El Niño or La Niña state, but the atmosphere is not playing along (or vice versa).

El Niño effects on the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Holmgren M, Scheffer M, Ezcurra E, Gutiérrez JR, Mohren GM. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 2001 Feb

Endangered
Any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and which is formally listed as endangered under the ESA.

Environmental Ethics
The discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents.

Equilibrium line (Snow/Glaciers)
The boundary between the accumulation area (area of a glacier where more mass is gained than lost) and ablation area (the area of a glacier where more glacier mass is lost than gained) where the mass balance is zero. [cite]

ESA (Endangered Species Act of 1973)
A Congressional Act which provides for the listing, protection, and recovery of endangered and threatened fish, wildlife, and plants.

Esker
A long winding ridge of stratified sand, gravel and other sediment, deposited by meltwater from a retreating glacier or ice sheet.
Also called an asar, osar, or serpent kame, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. Eskers are frequently several kilometres long and, because of their peculiar uniform shape, are somewhat like railway embankments.

Den site selection of wolves (Canis lupus) in response to declining caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) density in the central Canadian Arctic
MR Klaczek, CJ Johnson, HD Cluff – Polar Biology, 2015 – Springe

Ethogram
An ethogram is a catalogue or inventory of behaviours or actions exhibited by an animal used in ethology. The behaviours in an ethogram are usually defined to be mutually exclusive and objective, avoiding subjectivity and functional inference as to their possible purpose.

Ethology
The scientific study of animal behavior, especially as it occurs in a natural environment.

Experimental, Non-essential Population
A species listed as experimental and non-essential. Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species (e.g., red wolf) are treated as threatened species on public land, for consultation purposes, and as species proposed for listing on private land. Endangered Species Act

Experimental Population Designation (Section 10(j) Rule)
a concept added to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a way of reintroducing a species without severe restrictions on the use of private and public land in the area. Members of an experimental population can have special rules written for them which may include killing animals causing depredations (killing or harming domestic animals and/or livestock). This was proposed in order to reduce public opposition to the reintroduction of a major predator such as the wolf. If loss of the population would diminish the species‘ prospects for survival, the population is designated as essential and is treated as an endangered species. If the experimental population is designated as non-essential and is treated as a species that is proposed for listing as threatened or endangered. Examples of species with non-essential experimental populations are the Mexican gray wolf in the Southwest, the red wolf in the Southeast, the gray wolf in the Yellowstone area and the black-footed ferret.
International Wolf Center Glossary

Exploitation Competition
When organisms use up resources directly. Once used, the resource is no longer available for other species to use.

Federal Register
A periodical published by the United States Government which advertizes actions or proposed actions by federal agencies. The Federal Register is available at all major libraries and federal offices. It is the federal government’s primary means of releasing information to the public.

Founder
An inpidual animal or plant that is from an original (often wild) population , that had no known relationship to any inpiduals in the population, except for its own descendants. As of 2008, this number is 7 for the Mexican wolf population.

Functional Response

Number of prey eaten per predator per unit of time.

The wolves of Isle Royale display scale‐invariant satiation and ratio‐dependent predation on moose. Jost C, Devulder G, Vucetich JA, Peterson RO, Arditi R. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2005 Sep

Functional Response, predator dependant

“The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution tothe kill rate.”

Predator‐dependent functional response in wolves: From food limitation to surplus killing. Zimmermann B, Sand H, Wabakken P, Liberg O, Andreassen HP. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2015 Jan