Vocabulary E-F

A-B / C-D / E-F / G-H / I-J / K-L / M-N / O-P / Q-R / S-T / U-V / W-X / Y-Z

E-F

Ecosystem Integrity
The ability of an ecosystem to maintain its organisation in the face of changing environmental conditions, it is said to have integrity. The integrity of an ecosystem does not only reflect a single characteristic of an ecosystem and therefore encompasses a wide set of criteria.

Endangered
Any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and which is formally listed as endangered under the ESA.

Environmental Ethics
The discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents.

ESA (Endangered Species Act of 1973)
A Congressional Act which provides for the listing, protection, and recovery of endangered and threatened fish, wildlife, and plants.

Ethogram
An ethogram is a catalogue or inventory of behaviours or actions exhibited by an animal used in ethology. The behaviours in an ethogram are usually defined to be mutually exclusive and objective, avoiding subjectivity and functional inference as to their possible purpose.

Ethology
The scientific study of animal behavior, especially as it occurs in a natural environment.

Experimental, Non-essential Population
A species listed as experimental and non-essential. Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species (e.g., red wolf) are treated as threatened species on public land, for consultation purposes, and as species proposed for listing on private land. Endangered Species Act

Experimental Population Designation (Section 10(j) Rule)
a concept added to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a way of reintroducing a species without severe restrictions on the use of private and public land in the area. Members of an experimental population can have special rules written for them which may include killing animals causing depredations (killing or harming domestic animals and/or livestock). This was proposed in order to reduce public opposition to the reintroduction of a major predator such as the wolf. If loss of the population would diminish the species‘ prospects for survival, the population is designated as essential and is treated as an endangered species. If the experimental population is designated as non-essential and is treated as a species that is proposed for listing as threatened or endangered. Examples of species with non-essential experimental populations are the Mexican gray wolf in the Southwest, the red wolf in the Southeast, the gray wolf in the Yellowstone area and the black-footed ferret.
International Wolf Center Glossary

Exploitation Competition
When organisms use up resources directly. Once used, the resource is no longer available for other species to use.

Federal Register
A periodical published by the United States Government which advertizes actions or proposed actions by federal agencies. The Federal Register is available at all major libraries and federal offices. It is the federal government’s primary means of releasing information to the public.

Founder
An inpidual animal or plant that is from an original (often wild) population , that had no known relationship to any inpiduals in the population, except for its own descendants. As of 2008, this number is 7 for the Mexican wolf population