USDA-APHIS WS (United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Wildlife Services)
Federal agency that is involved in determining depredation causes to livestock in the recovery area, including damage caused by wolves.
Understory reinitiation (Stand succession)
Understory reinitiation stage, the third stage of forest succession: Small gaps of light in the canopy are created by breakage or death of individual trees – those lost to suppression, pests, wind throw, etc. This creates an opportunity for new species or individuals to establish in the understory, or for shade tolerant saplings already established in the understory to grow quickly into the gap. This stage generally contains more plant and animal species than the stem exclusion stage, but fewer than the stand initiation stage.
Forest Measurements: An Applied Approach
Author: Joan DeYoung, Creative Commons Attributions
United States Forest Service (USFS)
An agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation’s 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres (780,000 km2). Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System, State and Private Forestry, Business Operations, and the Research and Development branch. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency that is outside the U.S. Department of the Interior.
USFWS (United Species Fish and Wildlife Service)
The federal agency that is charged with overseeing the recovery of endangered fish, plants and animals. USFWS is a department within the Department of Interior and often referred to as the Service.
A vagile animal species is one that has the ability or tendency to move from place to place or disperse.
Carroll C, Fredrickson RJ, Lacy RC. Developing metapopulation connectivity criteria from genetic and habitat data to recover the endangered Mexican wolf. Conservation Biology. 2014 Feb
Capable of flying, and having wings extended for flight.