Eurasian wolf at Polar Zoo in Bardu, Norway; By Mas3cf – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Mech, L. David (1981), The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species, University of Minnesota Press, p. 354, ISBN 0-8166-1026-6
Middle Russian Forest Wolf
Heptner, V. G. & Naumov, N. P. (1998) Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), Science Publishers, Inc. USA., pp. 184-187, ISBN 1-886106-81-9
Overall population: Unknown. Over a hundred thousand?
Physical description: The Eurasion Wolf is the largest species of Old World wolves with weights between 150-180lbs approximate range. The Eurasion Wolf has relatively short and coarse hair that is mostly tan in colour with white underbelly and chest extending to the jaw.
[Miller, G. S. (1912), Catalogue of the mammals of Western Europe (Europe exclusive of Russia) in the collection of the British museum, London, Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, pp. 313-314]
Original range – Most of Eurasian continent.
Current range – Central Russia. Eastern and Northern Europe. Scandinavia. Mongolia. China. Himalayas
Habitat / Ecology / Prey:
Habitats: forest, tundra, taiga, dessert, plains, steppe, and mountains.
Prey: livestock, moose, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, reindeer, argali, mouflon, wisent, saiga, ibex, chamois, wild goats, fallow deer, yak, musk deer, hares. (Additional food source – garbage)
[Peterson, R. O. & Ciucci, P. (2003), “The Wolf as a Carnivore”, in Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, edited by L. David Mech and Luigi Boitani, pp. 104-130, Chicago: University Press]
Foraging for garbage on the edges of human dominated areas.
Legal and Cultural Background:
[Boitani, L. (1995), “Ecological and cultural diversities in the evolution of wolf-human relationships”, in Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world, eds. Carbyn, L. N., Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. pp. 3-12, Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute]
Wikipedia Eurasion Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)
Journal / Scientific Publications:
Vocalization of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus L.) and various dog breeds (Canis lupus f. fam.); DU Feddersen-Petersen – Archives Animal Breeding, 2000 – arch-anim-breed.net