Eurasian Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

Eurasian wolf.JPG
Eurasian wolf at Polar Zoo in Bardu, Norway; By Mas3cf – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Eurasion Wolf (Canis lupus lupus) – NOMINATE SUBSPECIES (Linnaeus 1758)

Common Names:
Eurasian Wolf
Common Wolf
Mech, L. David (1981), The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species, University of Minnesota Press, p. 354, ISBN 0-8166-1026-6
Middle Russian Forest Wolf
Heptner, V. G. & Naumov, N. P. (1998) Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), Science Publishers, Inc. USA., pp. 184-187, ISBN 1-886106-81-9

Overall population: Unknown. Over a hundred thousand?

Physical description: “The Eurasion Wolf is the largest species of Old World wolves with weights between 150-180lbs approximate range. The Eurasion Wolf has relatively short and coarse hair that is mostly tan in colour with white underbelly and chest extending to the jaw.”
[Miller, G. S. (1912), Catalogue of the mammals of Western Europe (Europe exclusive of Russia) in the collection of the British museum, London, Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, pp. 313-314]

Original range – Most of Eurasian continent.
Current range – Central Russia. Eastern and Northern Europe. Scandinavia. Mongolia. China. Himalayas

Habitat / Ecology / Prey:
Habitats: forest, tundra, taiga, dessert, plains, steppe, and mountains.
   – Global Warming;
Prey: livestock, moose “elk” (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus), European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), argali “mountain sheep” (Ovis ammon}, mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis), European bison “wisent” calves (Bison bonasus) , saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica), mountain goat “ibex” (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), wild goats (Capra aegagrus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild yak (Bos mutus), Siberian musk deer ( Moschus moschiferus), hares Lepus europaeus). (Additional food source – garbage)
[Peterson, R. O. & Ciucci, P. (2003), “The Wolf as a Carnivore”, in Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, edited by L. David Mech and Luigi Boitani, pp. 104-130, Chicago: University Press]

Unique behaviors:
Foraging for garbage on the edges of human dominated areas.

Legal and Cultural Background:
[Boitani, L. (1995), “Ecological and cultural diversities in the evolution of wolf-human relationships”, in Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world, eds. Carbyn, L. N., Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. pp. 3-12, Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute]


Taxonomic/Genetic Information:

Genetics and conservation of wolves Canis lupus in Europe. Randi E. Mammal Review. 2011 Apr

Wolves in Europe
Wolves in Asia

Further Reading
International Wolf Center  – Europe
International Wolf Center  – Asia

Journal / Scientific Publications:

The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF) Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora). Shkvyria MG, Yakovlev YB. Vestnik zoologii. 2016 Feb

Adaptive diet strategy of the wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Europe: a review
D Zlatanova, A Ahmed, A Valasseva… – Acta zoologica …, 2014 –

Vocalization of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus L.) and various dog breeds (Canis lupus f. fam.); DU Feddersen-Petersen – Archives Animal Breeding, 2000 –