Eurasian Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

Eurasian wolf.JPG
Eurasian wolf at Polar Zoo in Bardu, Norway; By Mas3cf – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Eurasion Wolf (Canis lupus lupus) – NOMINATE SUBSPECIES (Linnaeus 1758)

Common Names:
Eurasian Wolf
Common Wolf
Mech, L. David (1981), The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species, University of Minnesota Press, p. 354, ISBN 0-8166-1026-6
Middle Russian Forest Wolf
Heptner, V. G. & Naumov, N. P. (1998) Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), Science Publishers, Inc. USA., pp. 184-187, ISBN 1-886106-81-9

Overall population: Unknown. Over a hundred thousand?

Physical description: “The Eurasion Wolf is the largest species of Old World wolves with weights between 150-180lbs approximate range. The Eurasion Wolf has relatively short and coarse hair that is mostly tan in colour with white underbelly and chest extending to the jaw.”
[Miller, G. S. (1912), Catalogue of the mammals of Western Europe (Europe exclusive of Russia) in the collection of the British museum, London, Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, pp. 313-314]

Original range – Most of Eurasian continent.
Current range – Russia. Central, Eastern and Northern Europe. Scandinavia. Mongolia. China. Himalayas

Habitat / Ecology / Prey:
Habitats: forest, tundra, taiga, dessert, plains, steppe, and mountains.
Prey: Moose (Alces alces), Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), Argali “mountain sheep” (Ovis ammon}, Mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis), European bison “wisent” calves (Bison bonasus) , Saiga Antelope (Saiga tatarica), Alpine mountain goat “ibex” (Capra ibex), Chamois goat-antelope (Rupicapra rupicapra), Wild Goats (Capra aegagrus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), European hares (Lepus europaeus). raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), wolverene (Gulo gulo), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), European badger (Meles meles)

(Additional food source – garbage)
[Peterson, R. O. & Ciucci, P. (2003), “The Wolf as a Carnivore”, in Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, edited by L. David Mech and Luigi Boitani, pp. 104-130, Chicago: University Press]

Non-Prey European / Asian SpeciesEurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), European wildcat (Felis silvestris), European jackal (Canis aureus moreoticus)

Beautiful Birds of Eurasia!

Common Raven (Corvus corax), Carrion Crow (Corvus corone), Eurasian magpie (Pica pica), Eurasian jackdaw (Coloeus monedula), hooded crow (Corvus cornix), rook (Corvus frugilegus), Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), eastern marsh harrier (Circus spilonotus), Eurasian hobby (Falco subbuteo), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni), Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca), tawny owl (Strix aluco), little owl (Athene noctua), European green woodpecker (Picus viridis), Eurasian curlew or common curlew (Numenius arquata) Eurasian green-winged teal (Anas crecca), Eurasian skylark (Alauda arvensis), common house martin (Delichon urbicum), western yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava), Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea), Eurasian bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella), European stonechat (Saxicola rubicola), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Unique behaviors:

Legal and Cultural Background:
[Boitani, L. (1995), “Ecological and cultural diversities in the evolution of wolf-human relationships”, in Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world, eds. Carbyn, L. N., Fritts, S. H., and Seip, D. R., eds. pp. 3-12, Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute]


Taxonomic/Genetic Information:

Genetics and conservation of wolves Canis lupus in Europe. Randi E. Mammal Review. 2011 Apr

Wolves in Europe
Wolves in Asia

Further Reading

Eurasian Wolves in Europe and Asia: Albania / Austria / Belgium / Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bulgaria / Croatia / Czech RepublicFrance / Germany / Greece / Hungary / Italy / Macedonia / Netherlands / Poland / Portugal / Romania / Serbia and Montenegro / Slovakia / Slovenia / Spain  / Switzerland / Greenland / Denmark / Finland / Norway / Sweden / Estonia / Latvia / Lithuania / Belarus / Ukraine / Moldova / RussiaAfghanistan / Armenia / Azerbaijan / Georgia / Jordan / Kazakhstan / Kyrgyzstan  / Pakistan / Tajikistan / Turkmenistan / Turkey  / Uzbekistan

International Wolf Center  – Europe
International Wolf Center  – Asia

Journal / Scientific Publications:

The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF) Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora). Shkvyria MG, Yakovlev YB. Vestnik zoologii. 2016 Feb

Adaptive diet strategy of the wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Europe: a review
D Zlatanova, A Ahmed, A Valasseva… – Acta zoologica …, 2014 –

Vocalization of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus L.) and various dog breeds (Canis lupus f. fam.); DU Feddersen-Petersen – Archives Animal Breeding, 2000 –