Vocabulary S-T

A-B / C-D / E-F / G-H / I-J / K-L / M-N / O-P / Q-R / S-T / U-V / W-X / Y-Z


Scale Invariance
In physics, mathematics and statistics, is a feature of objects or laws that do not change if scales of length, energy, or other variables, are multiplied by a common factor, thus represent a universality.

The wolves of Isle Royale display scale‐invariant satiation and ratio‐dependent predation on moose. Jost C, Devulder G, Vucetich JA, Peterson RO, Arditi R. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2005 Sep

Secondary Recovery Zone
Recovery zone that allows for wolves to disperse, or to allow for transfer of previously released wolves.

Sexual Dimorphism
The condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants. Differences may include secondary sex characteristics, size, weight, color, markings, and may also include behavioral and cognitive differences.

Single-nucleotide Polymorphism,
Abbreviated to SNP (/snɪp/; plural /snɪps/), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Variation of Wolves (Canis lupus) in Southeast Alaska and Comparison with Wolves, Dogs, and Coyotes in North America
MA Cronin, A Cánovas, DL Bannasch… – Journal of …, 2014 – academic.oup.com

Soft release
The release of wolves to the wild from a temporary pen, where they have been held for a period of time to acclimate to the area of the release. The duration of acclimation may vary from several weeks to several months.

S.O.P. (Standard Operating Procedure)
The purpose of an SOP is to standardize how a particular task, process, or situation is handled. This is important to make sure that there is consistency in how different issues surrounding the management of Mexican wolves in the wild are conducted. They are also important to ensure that the agencies and their staff are in compliance with law, policy, etc. Lastly, the SOP’s help ensure that actions are conducted safely, under the appropriately authority, and that data are collected and analyzed consistently. For a complete list of the SOP’s that relate to the Mexican gray wolf, see SOP.

Spatially explicit capture–recapture

“A set of methods for studying marked animals distributed in space. Data comprise the locations of detectors (traps, searched areas, etc. described in an object of class ‘traps’), and the detection histories of individually marked animals. Individual histories are stored in an object of class ‘capthist’ that includes the relevant ‘traps’ object.” (Courtesy of)

Toward reliable population estimates of wolves by combining spatial capture-recapture models and non-invasive DNA monitoring. García, E.J., Godinho, R., López-Bao, J.V., Lema, F.J. and Pacheco, C., 2018.

A non-technical overview of spatially explicit capture–recapture models. Borchers D. Journal of Ornithology. 2012 Feb

Subnivean Zone or Climate
The area between the surface of the ground and the bottom of the snowpack. This is the environment of many hibernal animals, as it provides insulation and protection from predators. The subnivean climate is formed by three different types of snow metamorphosis: destructive metamorphosis, which begins when snow falls; constructive metamorphosis, the movement of water vapor to the surface of the snowpack; and melt metamorphosis, the melting/sublimation of snow to water vapor and its refreezing in the snowpack. These three types of metamorphosis transform individual snowflakes into ice crystals and create spaces under the snow where small animals can move.

SSP (Species Survival Plan)
[Mexican Gray Wolves]
The SSP began in 1981 as a cooperative population management and conservation program for selected species in zoos and aquariums in North America. Each SSP manages the breeding of a species in order to maintain a healthy and self-sustaining captive population that is both genetically perse and demographically stable. SSPs also participate in a variety of other cooperative conservation activities, such as research, public education, reintroduction and field projects. For more information, see SSP.

[Mexican Gray Wolves]
This studbook is a compilation of the vital records of the entire historic captive population of the Mexican gray wolf subspecies. Included are all the births, deaths, and transfers that have occurred in the history of the subspecies, as well as the family lineages.

In biology and ecology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another.

Systems Ecology
Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems. Systems ecology can be seen as an application of general systems theory to ecology.

A type of intraspecific or interspecific competition that results from the behavioral exclusion of others from a specific space that is defended as territory. This well-defined behavior is exhibited through songs and calls, intimidation behavior, attack and chase, and marking with scents.
With wolves, territorialiry is best described as intraspecific interference competition.

Any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.