Yellowstone National Park

Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

Northwestern Gray Wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis)
Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf (Canis lupus irremotus)

 Ecology /Prey

Ecology – Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

Effect on Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), Willow (Salix spp.) , Cottonwood (Populus spp.).

Birds –

Effected by Global Warming, Mountain Pine Beetle, Fire, Hunting.


Red Deer “Rocky Moutain Elk” (Cervus elaphus),  Elk “Wapiti” (Cervus canadensis),  Bison “American Buffalo” (Bison bison), Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Moose (Alces alces), Beaver (Castor canadensis)

Non-Prey – coyote, grizzly bear, black bear, and cougar

Yellowstone Wolves  / National Park Service
Yellowstone 24-1 Wolf Facts
Yellowstone Science 24-1 Celebrating 20 Years of Wolves
Yellowstone Wolf Project Citizen Science
Wolf Restoration in Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone Wolf Project Annual Reports

Journal Articles

Population responses of common ravens to reintroduced gray wolves
LE Walker, JM Marzluff, MC Metz… – Ecology and …, 2018 – Wiley Online Library

Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?
KA Cassidy, RT McIntyre – Animal cognition, 2016 – Springer

Group composition effects on aggressive interpack interactions of gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park
KA Cassidy, DR MacNulty, DR Stahler… – Behavioral …, 2015 –

Behavioral and ecological implications of seasonal variation in the frequency of daytime howling by Yellowstone wolves
R McIntyre, JB Theberge, MT Theberge, DW Smith; – Journal of Mammalogy, 2017

-Temporal variation in wolf predation dynamics in the multi-prey system of northern Yellowstone National Park
MC Metz, DW Smith, M Hebblewhite… – PeerJ PrePrints, 2016 –

[HTML] The effect of human activities and their associated noise on ungulate behavior
CL Brown, AR Hardy, JR Barber, KM Fristrup… – PloS one, 2012 –

Density‐dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus)
Sarah Cubaynes, Daniel R. MacNulty, Daniel R. Stahler, Kira A. Quimby, Douglas W. Smith, Tim Coulson – Journal of Animal …, 2014 – Wiley Online Library

Native prey distribution and migration mediates wolf (Canis lupus) predation on domestic livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
AA Nelson, MJ Kauffman… – … Journal of Zoology, 2016 – NRC Research Press

… Modeling Exploration of Risk Factors Associated with Sarcoptic Mange Severity, Susceptibility, and Duration in Yellowstone National Park Grey Wolves (Canis lupus)
S Wu – 2016 –

Social Status, Epigenetic Variation, and Complex Phenotypes: How Dominance Hierarchies Affect Plastic DNA Methylation in the Yellowstone Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
E McCoy – 2014 –

Yellowstone after wolves; DW Smith, RO Peterson, DB Houston – BioScience, 2003 –

Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus; RO Peterson, AK Jacobs, TD Drummer… – … Journal of Zoology, 2002 – NRC Research Press