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Understanding the Dynamics of Human–Wildlife Conflicts in North-Western Pakistan: Implications for Sustainable Conservation.Khattak RH, Teng L, Mehmood T, Ahmad S, Bari F, Rehman EU, Liu Z. Sustainability. 2021 Jan
The high economic costs of human–wildlife conflicts (HWC) hinder long-term conservation successes, especially in developing countries. We investigated HWC by interviewing 498 respondents from 42 villages in Nowshera district, Pakistan. According to respondents, six species—the common leopard (Panthera pardus), grey wolf (Canis lupus), golden jackal (Canis aureus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica), and wild boar (Sus scrofa)—were involved in livestock predation and crop-raiding. Livestock predation (N = 670) translated into a total annual economic loss of USD 48,490 across the 42 villages, with the highest economic loss of USD 57.1/household/year attributed to the golden jackal. Crop damage by wild boar and porcupine incurred a total annual economic loss of USD 18,000. Results further showed that livestock predation was highly affected by location, prey type, prey age, and herding practices, while cereals and vegetables were preferred crops for wild boar and Indian porcupine. The grey wolf was declared as the most dangerous carnivore, followed by the golden jackal and common leopard. Negative attitude about golden jackal and wild boar prevails among 90% of the respondents of the study area. We strongly assume that the abundance of apex predators can control the economic impacts of meso-carnivores and wild boar on the community’s livelihood. Keeping relatively smaller herds may reduce carnivore attacks and educating the populous and compensation can minimise negative perceptions of HWC. To reduce HWC in the study area, there should be an incessant and timely coordination between wildlife officials and the local community.