The Wolf Intelligencer


Wolves and Humans

The human-wildlife conflict in Musk Deer National Park, Neelum Gureze Valley, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. LA Khan, B Ahmad, AA Chaudhary, RA Minhas… – Brazilian Journal of Biology, 2022


Growing human population is a solemn risk to biodiversity at a global level. Massive anthropogenic pressure and invasion in the natural habitats initiated the human-wildlife conflict in rural areas. Present study aimed to assess human-wildlife conflict in Musk Deer National Park (MDNP) from 2013 to 2018. Results revealed an estimated 241784 nomadic and 5589 residential livestock heads grazed in different areas of MDNP during the summer season. A total of 126 heads were depredated by carnivores during the study period. Majority (n=39) of livestock heads were killed in May (n=29). Livestock depredation resulted in economic losses worth 3.115 million PKRs (25744 US$) to the herder community while farmers received 1.629 million PKRs (13466 US$) losses due to crop raiding. Most (64%) of the respondents believed human-wildlife conflict heightened due to scarcity of food or prey in the natural habitats of carnivores. Majority (92%) of the respondents did not like the presence of predators in MDNP. Loss compensation schemes could turn this negative attitude into the positive one and increase tolerance about the presence of carnivores in their vicinity. This study provides an insight into the human-wildlife conflict in MDNP and paves a way for understanding the conflict and conservation of carnivore species in the study area.

Wolf use of humanmade objects during pup-rearing. Animal Behavior and Cognition, Ausband, D.E., 2021


Some animals use humanmade objects for building and constructing nests or shelter and even for play. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) gather and use humanmade objects discovered in their natural environment. Gathering humanmade objects is a peculiar behavior particularly when there is no immediately apparent benefit to survival or reproduction. I opportunistically documented 46 different types of humanmade objects with plastic bottles and aluminum cans being the most common items found at wolf pup-rearing sites. Many objects were made of materials that appeared suitable to alleviate pain in teething pups. For some objects, however, it was not immediately obvious that they would alleviate teething pain due to their unpliable material. Additionally, such objects were quite rare in wolves’ natural environment although it was not uncommon to find them at pup-rearing sites. Rare humanmade objects may provide a novelty that stimulates pups more than common objects. I hypothesize that objects used by wolf pups 1) alleviate pain from teething, and 2) provide adults respite from energetic pups. The latter is an important distinction because it implies the benefit of object play is to the adults and not the pups per se. Gathering novel objects that occupy energetic and hungry pups may influence the overall ability of social carnivores to leave young unattended while they hunt, to rest upon their return, and ultimately rear young successfully.

Agent-based models predict patterns and identify constraints of large carnivore recolonizations, a case study of wolves in Scandinavia MR Recio, A Singer, P Wabakken, H Sand – Biological Conservation, 2020 Nov

In the Shadow of the Wolf: Wildlife Conflict and Land Use Politics in the New West (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley). Martin, J.V., 2020.

Adult, intensively socialized wolves show features of attachment behaviour to their handler. Lenkei R, Újváry D, Bakos V, Faragó T.Scientific Reports. 2020 Oc

Recall of the Fairy-Tale Wolf:“Little Red Riding Hood” in the Dialogic Tension of Contemporary Wolf Politics in the US West. Lappalainen K. ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment. 2019 Aug

Keep the wolf from the door: How to conserve wolves in Europe’s human-dominated landscapes?, D.P.J. Kuijper Biological Conservation 2019

Towards Human–Wildlife Coexistence through the Integration of Human and Natural Systems The Case of Grey Wolves in the Rocky Mountains, USA. CARTER NH, BRUSKOTTER JT, VUCETICH J, CRABTREE R, JAICKS H, KARNS G, NELSON MP, SMITH D, LINNELL JD. Human–Wildlife Interactions: Turning Conflict into Coexistence. 2019 May

Blaming threatened species: media portrayal of human–wildlife conflict. Dayer AA, Williams A, Cosbar E, Racey M. Oryx. 2019 Apr

Predator recovery, shifting baselines, and the adaptive management challenges they create. Cammen KM, Rasher DB, Steneck RS. Ecosphere. 2019 Feb

Wild boars, wolves, and red kites. Schleyer C, Hagemann N, Rauchenecker K. Routledge Handbook of the Study of the Commons. 2019 Jan

Wolves of the Sea: Managing human-wildlife conflict in an increasingly tense ocean. Guerra AS. Marine Policy. 2019 Jan

Integrating multi-level values and pro-environmental behavior in a US protected area. van Riper C, Winkler-Schor S, Foelske L, Keller R, Braito M, Raymond C, Eriksson M, Golebie E, Johnson D. Sustainability Science. 2019 Jan

Summoning compassion to address the challenges of conservation. Wallach AD, Bekoff M, Batavia C, Nelson MP, Ramp D. Conservation Biology. 2018 Dec

Intervention Impact on Young Students’ Associations about Wolf and Lynx; O Dieser, FX Bogner – Brill, 2018 Oct

Human complex relationships with dogs, wolves, and wolf-dog hybrids. Lescureux N. Hybrid Communities: Biosocial Approaches to Domestication and Other Trans-species Relationships. 2018 Aug

Considering wolves as active agents in understanding stakeholder perceptions and developing management strategies. Lescureux N, Garde L, Meuret M. Large Carnivore Conservation and Management. 2018 Jul

A Livestock Guardian Dog by Any Other Name: Similar Response to Wolves Across Livestock Guardian Dog Breeds D Kinka, JK Young – Rangeland Ecology & Management, 2018 Jul

Humans and urban development mediate the sympatry of competing carnivores
RJ Moll, JD Cepek, PD Lorch, PM Dennis, T Robison… – Urban Ecosystems, 2018 Apr

Can only poorer European countries afford large carnivores?. Kojola I, Hallikainen V, Helle T, Swenson JE. PloS one. 2018 Apr

Hallmarks of science missing from North American wildlife management
KA Artelle, JD Reynolds, A Treves, JC Walsh… – Science Advances,  2018 Mar

Breaking Barriers: Causes, Consequences, and Experimental Utility of Human-Mediated Hybridization; KC Grabenstein, SA Taylor – Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 2018 Mar

Conservation professionals agree on challenges to coexisting with large carnivores but not on solutions; ML Lute, NH Carter, JV López-Bao, JDC Linnell – Biological Conservation, 2018 Feb

Europe as a model for large carnivores conservation: Is the glass half empty or half full?. Gippoliti S, Brito D, Cerfolli F, Franco D, Kryštufek B, Battisti C. Journal for nature conservation. 2018 Feb

Pup‐rearing habitat use in a harvested carnivore
CE Jacobs, DE Ausband – The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2018 Feb

The importance of fine-scale breeding site selection patterns under a landscape-sharing approach for wolf conservation; L Llaneza, V Sazatornil, JV López-Bao – Biodiversity and Conservation, 2018 Jan

Understanding human–wildlife conflicts and their implications. Torres DF, Oliveira ES, Alves RR. Ethnozoology. 2018 Jan

Assessing the roles of wolves and dogs in livestock predation with suggestions for mitigating human–wildlife conflict and conservation of wolves;L Plumer, T Talvi, P Männil, U Saarma – Conservation Genetics, 2018 Jan

The contribution of predators and scavengers to human well-being; CJ O’Bryan, AR Braczkowski, HL Beyer, NH Carter… – Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2018 Jan

How Wolves Turned into Dogs and How Dogs Are Valuable in Meeting Human Social Needs K Kotrschal – People and Animals: The International Journal of …, 2018

The Role of Human Dimensions in State Wildlife Management; DJ Decker, WF Siemer, AB Forstchen, C Smith – State Wildlife Management and …, 2018

Wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) domestication: why did it occur so late and at such high latitude? A hypothesis; A Schnitzler, M Patou-Mathis – Anthropozoologica, 2017 Dec

Coexistence of wolves and humans in a densely populated region (Lower Saxony, Germany). Ronnenberg K, Habbe B, Gräber R, Strauß E, Siebert U.Basic and applied ecology. 2017 Dec

Do wild ungulates experience higher stress with humans than with large carnivores?
A Zbyryt, JW Bubnicki, DPJ Kuijper, M Dehnhard… – Behavioral Ecology, 2017 Nov

Blood may buy goodwill: no evidence for a positive relationship between legal culling and poaching in Wisconsin; A Stien – Proc. R. Soc. B, 2017 Nov

Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation governance: The case of wildlife management in the United States; MJ Manfredo, TL Teel, L Sullivan, AM Dietsch – Biological Conservation, 2017 Oct

Nowhere to hide: effects of linear features on predator‐prey dynamics in a large mammal system; CA DeMars, S Boutin – Journal of Animal Ecology, 2017 Sep

Hunters’ attitudes matter: diverging bear and wolf population trajectories in Finland in the late nineteenth century and today; S Mykrä, M Pohja-Mykrä, T Vuorisalo – European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017 Sep

When is it acceptable to kill a strictly protected carnivore? Exploring the legal constraints on wildlife management within Europe’s Bern Convention; JDC Linnell, A Trouwborst, FM Fleurke – Nature Conservation, 2017 Sep

Snow conditions influence grey wolf (Canis lupus) travel paths: the effect of human-created linear features; A Droghini, S Boutin – Canadian Journal of Zoology, 2017 Aug

RE: The Order to Approve the Level of Intervention for Bears and Wolves Species in the Interest of Health and Safety of the Population and in Order to Prevent Serious …
DM Gavrilescu 2017 Jul

Where can wolves live and how can we live with them?. Mech LD. Biological Conservation. 2017 Jun

Himalayan Wolf Attack of a Twelve-Year-Old Case at High Altitude. Danish Khan I. Journal of Archives in Military Medicine. 2017

Combating Wildlife and forest Crime in the danube-Carpathian region
L Schlingemann, I de Bortoli, F Favilli, H Egerer… – 2017

Troublemaking carnivores: conflicts with humans in a diverse assemblage of large carnivores; A Morehouse, M Boyce – Ecology and Society, 2017

Humans as Prey: Coping with Large Carnivore Attacks using a Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective V Penteriani, G Bombieri, JM Fedriani, JV López-Bao… – Human–Wildlife Interactions, 2017

Effects of anthropogenic mortality on critically endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implications for red wolf recovery. Hinton JW, Brzeski KE, Rabon DR, Chamberlain MJ. Oryx. 2017 Jan

The role of human-related risk in breeding site selection by wolves. Sazatornil V, Rodríguez A, Klaczek M, Ahmadi M, Alvares F, Arthur S, Blanco JC, Borg BL, Cluff D, Cortes Y, Garcia EJ. Biological Conservation. 2016 Sep

Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities; Bridget L. Borg ,Stephen M. Arthur,Nicholas A. Bromen,Kira A. Cassidy, Rick McIntyre, Douglas W. Smith, Laura R. Prugh; PLOS 2016 Apr

Predators that kill humans: myth, reality, context and the politics of wolf attacks on people. Linnell JD, Alleau J. Problematic Wildlife. 2016

Content analysis of newspaper coverage of wolf recolonization in France using structural topic modeling. Chandelier M, Steuckardt A, Mathevet R, Diwersy S, Gimenez O. Biological conservation. 2018 Apr

Pendulum swings in wolf management led to conflict, illegal kills, and a legislated wolf hunt. Olson ER, Stenglein JL, Shelley V, Rissman AR, Browne‐Nuñez C, Voyles Z, Wydeven AP, Van Deelen T. Conservation Letters. 2015 Sep

Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. Xu Y, Yang B, Dou L. PeerJ. 2015 Jun

An individual-based model for southern Lake Superior wolves: A tool to explore the effect of human-caused mortality on a landscape of risk. Stenglein JL, Gilbert JH, Wydeven AP, Van Deelen TR. Ecological modelling. 2015 Apr

Top carnivores increase their kill rates on prey as a response to human-induced fear. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Smith JA, Wang Y, Wilmers CC. Biological Sciences. 2015 Mar

H eavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive steroids than wolves with lower hunting pressure. Bryan HM, Smits JE, Koren L, Paquet PC, Wynne‐Edwards KE, Musiani M.Functional Ecology. 2015 Mar

Promoting predators and compassionate conservation. Wallach AD, Bekoff M, Nelson MP, Ramp D. Conservation Biology. 2015 Jan

More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves. Jacobs MH, Vaske JJ, Dubois S, Fehres P. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 2014 Aug

Warring brothers: The complex interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) in a conservation context. Lescureux N, Linnell JD. Biological conservation. 2014 Mar

Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in Central Asia. Berger J, Buuveibaatar B, Mishra C. Conservation Biology. 2013 Aug

Institutional misfits: law and habits in Finnish wolf policy. Hiedanpää, J., 2013

Making sense of the social: human-nonhuman constellations and the wicked road to sustainability. Sustainability: Science, Hiedanpää J, Jokinen A, Jokinen P. Practice and Policy. 2012 Apr

Human activity differentially redistributes large mammals in the Canadian Rockies National Parks. Rogala JK, Hebblewhite M, Whittington J, White CA, Coleshill J, Musiani M. Ecology and Society. 2011

Rescuing wolves from politics: wildlife as a public trust resource. Bruskotter JT, Enzler SA, Treves A. Science. 2011 Sep

Development of gaze following abilities in wolves (Canis lupus). Range F, Virányi Z. PLoS One. 2011

Are gray wolves endangered in the northern Rocky Mountains? A role for social science in listing determinations. Bruskotter JT, Toman E, Enzler SA, Schmidt RH. BioScience. 2010 Dec

Human dimensions of large carnivore conservation and management: introduction to the special issue. Bruskotter JT, Shelby LB. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 2010 Sep

Public preferences for wolf management processes in Michigan. Lute ML, Axelrod M. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 2015 Jan

Living with Success-and with Wolves: Addressing the Legal Issues Raised by the Unexpected Raised by the Unexpected Homecoming of a Controversial Carnivore. Eur. Trouwborst A. Energy & Envtl. L. Rev.. 2014

A quantitative summary of attitudes toward wolves and their reintroduction (1972-2000). Williams CK, Ericsson G, Heberlein TA. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2002 Jul

The effects of breeder loss on wolves. Brainerd SM, Andrén H, Bangs EE, Bradley EH, Fontaine JA, Hall W, Iliopoulos Y, Jimenez MD, Jozwiak EA, Liberg O, Mack CM. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2008 Jan

At what distance do wolves move away from an approaching human?. Karlsson J, Eriksson M, Liberg O. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2007 Nov

Human attitudes towards wolves, a matter of distance. Karlsson J, Sjöström M. Biological conservation. 2007 Jul

Wolves, serpents, and birds. Gräslund AS. Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes, and Interactions. 2006

Towards the necessity of a new interactive approach integrating ethnology, ecology and ethology in the study of the relationship between Kyrgyz stockbreeders and wolves. Lescureux N. Social science information. 2006 Sep

Wolf habitat analysis in Michigan: an example of the need for proactive land management for carnivore species. Gehring TM, Potter BA. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2005 Dec

The practices of wolf persecution, protection, and restoration in Canada and the United States. Musiani M, Paquet PC. BioScience. 2004 Jan

Human–predator–prey conflicts: ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Graham K, Beckerman AP, Thirgood S. Biological conservation. 2005 Mar

Americans’ Attitudes Toward Wolves and Wolf Reintroduction: An Annoated Bibliography. Browne-Nuñez, C. and Taylor, J.G., 2002

A quantitative summary of attitudes toward wolves and their reintroduction (1972-2000). Williams CK, Ericsson G, Heberlein TA. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2002 Jul

Human population density and extinction risk in the world’s carnivores. Cardillo M, Purvis A, Sechrest W, Gittleman JL, Bielby J, Mace GM. PLoS biology. 2004 Jul

The practices of wolf persecution, protection, and restoration in Canada and the United States; M Musiani, PC Paquet – Bioscience, 2004

Human‐carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Treves A, Karanth KU. Conservation biology. 2003 Dec

Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Ericsson G, Heberlein TA. Biological conservation. 2003 Jun

Wolves and humans. Fritts SH, Stephenson RO, Hayes RD, Boitani L.

Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and Elk
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The fear of wolves: A review of wolf attacks on humans. Linnell, J., Andersen, R., Andersone, Z., Balciauskas, L., Blanco, J.C., Boitani, L., Brainerd, S., Breitenmoser, U., Kojola, I., Liberg, O. and Loe, J., 2002 Jan

Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Woodroffe R. InAnimal Conservation Forum 2000 May

Response of reindeer and caribou to human activities. Wolfe SA, Griffith B, Wolfe CA. Polar research. 2000 Feb

Road densities and gray wolf, Canis lupus, habitat suitability: an exception. Merrill SB. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 2000

Assessing potential gray wolf restoration in the northeastern United States: a spatial prediction of favorable habitat and potential population levels. Mladenoff DJ, Sickley TA. The Journal of wildlife management. 1998 Jan

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