The Wolf Intelligencer


Wolf – Prey Relationships and Interactions

Comparison of Activity Patterns for American Beavers, Gray Wolves, and Muskrats. Lorenz, M.L., 2021


American beavers (Castor canadensis) share the same niche as muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) by creating lodges and they compete with one another when their vegetation needs overlap. Beavers face predation from gray wolves (Canis lupus). The prediction is that beavers adjust their activity pattern in order to reduce competition with muskrats and to avoid predation from gray wolves. Activity patterns were found by using the Snapshot USA database. Beavers share the same nocturnal activity pattern with muskrats and gray wolves have cathemeral patterns that most likely adjust to the available prey’s schedule. This research has revealed that beavers have a definitive schedule that is not heavily affected by competition or predation, but more research may need to be done where an overlap of beavers with muskrats or gray wolves is more well known.

Do apex predators need to regulate prey populations to be a right conservation target?. Martínez-Abraín A, Llaneza L, Ballesteros F, Grandal-d’Anglade A. Biological Conservation. 2021 Sep


cultural models of wildness have developed further due to contingent historical and social reasons. In southern European ecosystems apex predators usually cannot regulate prey populations, acting as scavengers or vegetarian. As a consequence, prey are often regulated by bottom-up mechanisms, such as density-dependent disease or food availability. This should not be seen as a downgrading of predator functionality in ecosystems, but just as another type of ecosystem organization. Actually, the species that we now call apex predators were part of much richer predator communities in the Pleistocene, where they behaved as mesopredators (wolf) or already had vegetarian diets (southern brown bear). Species functionality shows spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and this variability needs to be taken into account and incorporated to conservation plans on a case by case basis, to improve their success rates and human-wildlife coexistence.

Consumption of Carnivores by Wolves: A Worldwide Analysis of Patterns and Drivers. Martins I, Krofel M, Mota PG, Álvares F. Diversity. 2020 Dec

Fossoriality in a risky landscape: badger sett use varies with perceived wolf risk. Diserens TA, Bubnicki JW, Schutgens E, Rokx K, Kowalczyk R, Kuijper DP, Churski M.Journal of Zoology. 2020 Oct

Sixty years of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) yarding in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)–deer system. LD Mech, SM Barber-Meyer – The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 2020

Do prey select for vacant hunting domains to minimize a multi‐predator threat?. Kohl MT, Ruth TK, Metz MC, Stahler DR, Smith DW, White PJ, MacNulty DR. Ecology letters. 2019 Nov

Habitat use of sympatric prey suggests divergent anti-predator responses to recolonizing gray wolves. Dellinger JA, Shores CR, Craig A, Heithaus MR, Ripple WJ, Wirsing AJ. Oecologia. 2019 Feb

Natural re-colonization and admixture of wolves (Canis lupus) in the US Pacific Northwest: challenges for the protection and management of rare and endangered taxa. Hendricks SA, Schweizer RM, Harrigan RJ, Pollinger JP, Paquet PC, Darimont CT, Adams JR, Waits LP, Hohenlohe PA, Wayne RK. Heredity. 2019 Feb

Social behavior-induced multistability in minimal competitive ecosystems. Melchionda D, Pastacaldi E, Perri C, Banerjee M, Venturino E. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2018 Feb

Coexistence with Large Carnivores Supported by a Predator-Compensation Program; AT Morehouse, J Tigner, MS Boyce – Environmental Management, 2018 Jan

The calm during the storm: Snowfall events decrease the movement rates of grey wolves (Canis lupus)
A Droghini, S Boutin – PloS one, 2018

Winter hunting behavior and habitat selection of wolves in a low-density prey system. Johnson I, Brinkman T, Lake B, Brown C. Wildlife Biology. 2017 Dec

The importance of fieldwork over predictive modeling in quantifying predation events of carnivores marked with GPS technology; LM Elbroch, B Lowrey, HU Wittmer – Journal of Mammalogy, December 27 2017 Dec

Changes in future potential distributions of apex predator and mesopredator mammals in North America; R Pandey, M Papeş – Regional Environmental Change, 2017 Dec

Territory surveillance and prey management: Wolves keep track of space and time; UE Schlägel, EH Merrill, MA Lewis – Ecology and Evolution, , 2017 Sep

Wolf-Moose Spatial Dynamics in Alberta’s Athabasca Oil Sands Region. EW Neilson ; University of Alberta- 2017

Ecosystem context and historical contingency in apex predator recoveries; Adrian C. Stier,Jameal F. Samhouri, Mark Novak, Kristin N. Marshall, Eric J. Ward, Robert D. Holt and Phillip S. Levin; CONSERVATION ECOLOGY; Science Advances. 2016 May

Food habits of the world’s grey wolves
TM Newsome, L Boitani, G Chapron, P Ciucci… – Mammal …, 2016

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer; L. David Mech, Aaron Morris, Shannon Barber-Meyer; The Canadian Field-Naturalist; 2015

Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk. Creel S, Winnie Jr JA, Christianson D. Ecology and Evolution. 2013 Dec

Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator–prey ratios in three wolf‐ungulate systems
JA Vucetich, M Hebblewhite, DW Smith… – Journal of Animal …, 2011

Evaluating prey switching in wolf–ungulate systems
RA Garrott, JE Bruggeman, MS Becker… – Ecological …, 2007

Spatial decomposition of predation risk using resource selection functions: an example in a wolf–elk predator–prey system
M Hebblewhite, EH Merrill, TL McDonald – Oikos, 2005

Assessing the impact of wolves on ungulate prey. Eberhardt LL, Garrott RA, Smith DW, White PJ, Peterson RO. Ecological Applications. 2003 Jun

Wolf-prey relations
LD Mech, RO Peterson – 2003

The effect of prey and predator densities on wolf predation
JA Vucetich, RO Peterson, CL Schaefer – Ecology, 2002

A mammalian predator–prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants
J Berger, PB Stacey, L Bellis… – Ecological …, 2001

Wolf Predation and Unǵulate Populations. Pimlott DH. American Zoologist. 1967 May

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