The Wolf Intelligencer

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

Wolf – Non Prey Interactions

Activity pattern variation of three canine species in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Hinshaw, T.E., 2021


The coyote (Canis latrans), the gray wolf (Canis lupus), and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are all known to be ecologically significant predators. All three are widely known canine species ranging in size, but also share similarities due to their close taxonomic relationship. Yet, they have many notable differences as a result of adapting to different drivers of speciation, such as competition or food source availability. Further, it is my goal to determine if there are differences in their daily activity patterns which have previously been observed as crepuscular. Data used for my research was collected using camera traps from the Snapshot USA project located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. By running a chi square test, I determined that coyotes are nocturnal, however, the red fox and gray wolf are indeterminant, or cathemeral. Studying daily activity patterns is vital to understanding a species ecological role and impact on their environment. Further research could determine how species activity patterns have impacted various wildlife populations and communities, as well as potential ecological drivers and disturbances that have caused these activity patterns.

Enemies with benefits: integrating positive and negative interactions among terrestrial carnivores. Prugh LR, Sivy KJ. Ecology letters. 2020 May

ndividual Variation in Predatory Behavior, Scavenging and Seasonal Prey Availability as Potential Drivers of Coexistence between Wolves and Bears. Ordiz A, Milleret C, Uzal A, Zimmermann B, Wabakken P, Wikenros C, Sand H, Swenson JE, Kindberg J.Diversity. 2020 Sep


Habitat segregation between brown bears and gray wolves in a human‐dominated landscape. Milleret C, Ordiz A, Chapron G, Andreassen HP, Kindberg J, Månsson J, Tallian A, Wabakken P, Wikenros C, Zimmermann B, Swenson JE. Ecology and Evolution. 2018 Dec

Wolf and Vultures Sympatric Presence in Europe: Ecological Benefits and Constraints. Stoynov¹, E., Vangelova, N., Zlatanova¹, D., Peshev, H., Parvanov¹, D., Delov¹, V. and Grozdanov¹, A., 2018

Fear or food–abundance of red fox in relation to occurrence of lynx and wolf. Wikenros C, Aronsson M, Liberg O, Jarnemo A, Hansson J, Wallgren M, Sand H, Bergström R. Scientific reports. 2017 Aug

Is the Wolf Presence Beneficial to Vultures in Europe. Stoynov E, Vangelova N, Zlatanova D, Peshev H, Grozdanov A, Wilpstra H, Parvanov D, Delov V. Published online on ResearchGate. DOI. 2015

Wolf interactions with non-prey. Ballard, W.B., Carbyn, L.N. and Smith, D.W., 2003

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