The Wolf Intelligencer

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

Snow leopard (Panthera uncia)

India, हिम तेंदुआ | Nepal, हिम चितुवा | Bhutan, གངས་གཟིག | China, 雪豹 | Mongolia, Цасны ирвэс | Russia, Снежный барс | Pakistan, برفانی چیتے | Afghanistan, واوره چیتے | Kyrgyzstan, Ак Илбирс | Kazakhstan, қар барыс | Tajikistan, паланги барфӣ | Uzbekistan, qor qoploni

Snow leopards are categorized as ‘Vulnerable’ by IUCN and are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS.


Snow Leopard Trust
Global Snow Leopard & Ecosystem Protection Program
Ranger Reward Program
Snow Leopard Conservancy
Snow Leopard Conservancy — Pakistan
Snow Leopard Conservancy, India
Nature Conservation Foundation India
The Altai Project
The National Trust for Nature Conservation Nepal
Project Snow LeoPard – Conservation India
Wildlife Conservation Society
Snow Leopard Network
Wildlife Conservation Network

Further Reading

The Snow Leopard Project. And Other Adventures in Warzone Conservation
Alex Dehgan

The Snow Leopard and Cultural Landscape in Contemporary Kazakhstan
Kristopher D. White

Journal Articles

Livestock limits snow leopard’s space use by suppressing its prey, blue sheep, at Gongga Mountain, China. Yang C, Zhang P, Wu Y, Dai Q, Luo G, Zhou H, Zhao D, Ran J. Global Ecology and Conservation. 2021 Jul


The habitats of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) are heavily utilized as pasturelands on the Tibetan Plateau. Livestock can benefit the snow leopard populations via providing extra prey resources. However, livestock can negatively impact upon the distribution of snow leopards by competing with their wild prey. Therefore, how grazing affects snow leopard space use is variable and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. We used 188 camera traps to systematically investigate the activities of snow leopards, their main wild prey, i.e., blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), and livestock (i.e. yaks) across 650 km2 of Gongga Mountain. We found that: (1) snow leopards were detected only in areas with higher occurrences of blue sheep, and the presence of blue sheep was crucial in driving snow leopard space use. (2) The detection frequencies of snow leopards and blue sheep were lower at sites with yaks than without yaks. (3) Yaks limited snow leopard space use mainly by competing with its main prey, blue sheep. Our results highlight that the competition pressure of livestock on wild ungulates can limit the activities of snow leopards. Grazing management should be improved for conservation of snow leopards at Gongga Mountain.

Predicting Habitat Suitability of Snow Leopards in the Western Himalayan Mountains, India. Singh R, Krausman PR, Pandey P, Maheshwari A, Rawal RS, Sharma S, Shekhar R. Biology Bulletin. 2020 Nov


The population of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is declining across their range, due to poaching, habitat fragmentation, retaliatory killing, and a decrease of wild prey species. Obtaining information on rare and cryptic predators living in remote and rugged terrain is important for making conservation and management strategies. We used the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) ecological niche modeling framework to predict the potential habitat of snow leopards across the western Himalayan region, India. The model was developed using 34 spatial species occurrence points in the western Himalaya, and 26 parameters including, prey species distribution, temperature, precipitation, land use and land cover (LULC), slope, aspect, terrain ruggedness and altitude. Thirteen variables contributed 98.6% towards predicting the distribution of snow leopards. The area under the curve (AUC) score was high (0.994) for the training data from our model, which indicates predictive ability of the model. The model predicted that there was 42 432 km2 of potential habitat for snow leopards in the western Himalaya region. Protected status was available for 11 247 km2 (26.5%), but the other 31 185 km2 (73.5%) of potential habitat did not have any protected status. Thus, our approach is useful for predicting the distribution and suitable habitats and can focus field surveys in selected areas to save resources, increase survey success, and improve conservation efforts for snow leopards.

Relative influence of wild prey and livestock abundance on carnivore‐caused livestock predation G Khanal, C Mishra, K Ramesh Suryawanshi – Ecology and Evolution 2020 Aug

Shen Q. The Effects of Climate Change on Snow Leopards at the Hengduan Mountain Region. InIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2020 Aug

Spatial variation in population-density, movement and detectability of snow leopards in 2 a multiple use landscape in Spiti Valley, Trans-Himalaya. Sharma RK, Sharma K, Borchers D, Bhatnagar YV, Suryawanshi KS, Mishra C. bioRxiv. 2020 Jan

[HTML] Patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and other large carnivores in the Central Himalayas, Nepal
M Chetri, M Odden, O Devineau, P Wegge – Global Ecology and …, 2019 – Elsevier

[HTML] Livestock depredation by snow leopard and Tibetan wolf: Implications for herders’ livelihoods in Wangchuck Centennial National Park, Bhutan
Y Jamtsho, O Katel – Pastoralism, 2019 – pastoralismjournal.springeropen

[HTML] Estimating snow leopard density using fecal DNA in a large landscape in north-central Nepal
M Chetri, M Odden, K Sharma, Ø Flagstad… – Global Ecology and …, 2019 – Elsevier

[HTML] Responses of snow leopards, wolves and wild ungulates to livestock grazing in the Zorkul Strictly Protected Area, Tajikistan
K Karimov, SM Kachel, K Hackländer – PloS one, 2018 –

Sympatric snow leopards and Tibetan wolves:coexistence of large carnivores with human-driven potential competition
A Bocci, S Lovari, MZ Khan, E Mori – European Journal of Wildlife …, 2017 – Springer

[HTML] Snow leopard and Himalayan wolf: food habits and prey selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal
M Chetri, M Odden, P Wegge – PloS one, 2017 –

Snow Leopard prey and diet
D Mallon, RB Harris, P Wegge – Snow Leopards, 2016 – Elsevier

Livestock predation by snow leopards: conflicts and the search for solutions
C Mishra, SR Redpath, KR Suryawanshi – Snow Leopards, 2016 – Elsevier

Conservation of snow leopards: spill-over benefits for other carnivores?
JS Alexander, JJ Cusack, C Pengju, S Kun, P Riordan – Oryx, 2016 –

Status assessment of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and other large mammals in the Kyrgyz Alay, using community knowledge corrected for imperfect …
J Taubmann, K Sharma, KZ Uulu, JE Hines, C Mishra – Oryx, 2016 –

Living on the edge: Depletion of wild prey and survival of the Snow Leopard
S Lovari, C Mishra – Snow Leopards, 2016 – Elsevier

Status of the mountain ungulate prey of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in the Tost Local Protected Area, South Gobi, Mongolia
L Tumursukh, KR Suryawanshi, C Mishra… – Oryx, 2016 –

[HTML] Patterns of snow leopard site use in an increasingly human-dominated landscape
JS Alexander, AM Gopalaswamy, K Shi, J Hughes… – PloS one, 2016 –

Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards
J Alexander, P Chen, P Damerell, W Youkui… – Biological …, 2015 – Elsevier

Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia
Ö Johansson, T McCarthy, G Samelius, H Andrén… – Biological …, 2015 – Elsevier

Snow leopard conservation in Kyrgyzstan: enforcement, education and research activities by the German Society for Nature Conservation (NABU)
B Dexel – Contributed Papers to the Snow Leopard Survival …, 2002 –

%d bloggers like this: