The Wolf Intelligencer


Snow leopard (Panthera uncia)

India, हिम तेंदुआ | Nepal, हिम चितुवा | Bhutan, གངས་གཟིག | China, 雪豹 | Mongolia, Цасны ирвэс | Russia, Снежный барс | Pakistan, برفانی چیتے | Afghanistan, واوره چیتے | Kyrgyzstan, Ак Илбирс | Kazakhstan, қар барыс | Tajikistan, паланги барфӣ | Uzbekistan, qor qoploni

Snow leopards are categorized as ‘Vulnerable’ by IUCN and are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS.


Snow Leopard Trust
Global Snow Leopard & Ecosystem Protection Program
Ranger Reward Program
Snow Leopard Conservancy
Snow Leopard Conservancy — Pakistan
Snow Leopard Conservancy, India
Nature Conservation Foundation India
The Altai Project
The National Trust for Nature Conservation Nepal
Project Snow LeoPard – Conservation India
Wildlife Conservation Society
Snow Leopard Network
Wildlife Conservation Network

Further Reading

The Snow Leopard Project. And Other Adventures in Warzone Conservation
Alex Dehgan

The Snow Leopard and Cultural Landscape in Contemporary Kazakhstan
Kristopher D. White

Journal Articles

Case Study of the Snow Leopard in Sanjiangyuan National Park Boundaries regarding Park Boundary Divergence. Feng X, Peng Q, Chen Y, Li W. A Land. 2022 May


This paper uses remote sensing data from the Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) to explore the divergence between the boundaries of national parks and the distribution of natural habitats. Results are used to argue that these discrepancies evolve along with the potential impact of global warming. Using the example of the habitat change of snow leopards and the conflicts between local people and snow leopards, we reflect on the consequences of this divergence. Results show that divergence between the political boundaries and natural habitats as well as the consequent influence on the living conditions of local people are strikingly visible, and the effects of global warming on such conflicts are apparent. The authors conclude that both notions of ‘political boundaries’ and ‘natural habitats’ are expected to come together as the SNP region is spatially configured, while ‘global warming’ seems to be relevant as an essential reference when delimiting the region in the future. Finally, the proposal for the establishment of cooperative conservation areas is presented, emphasizing the role of cooperative governance in/around national parks.

Livestock limits snow leopard’s space use by suppressing its prey, blue sheep, at Gongga Mountain, China. Yang C, Zhang P, Wu Y, Dai Q, Luo G, Zhou H, Zhao D, Ran J. Global Ecology and Conservation. 2021 Jul


The habitats of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) are heavily utilized as pasturelands on the Tibetan Plateau. Livestock can benefit the snow leopard populations via providing extra prey resources. However, livestock can negatively impact upon the distribution of snow leopards by competing with their wild prey. Therefore, how grazing affects snow leopard space use is variable and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. We used 188 camera traps to systematically investigate the activities of snow leopards, their main wild prey, i.e., blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), and livestock (i.e. yaks) across 650 km2 of Gongga Mountain. We found that: (1) snow leopards were detected only in areas with higher occurrences of blue sheep, and the presence of blue sheep was crucial in driving snow leopard space use. (2) The detection frequencies of snow leopards and blue sheep were lower at sites with yaks than without yaks. (3) Yaks limited snow leopard space use mainly by competing with its main prey, blue sheep. Our results highlight that the competition pressure of livestock on wild ungulates can limit the activities of snow leopards. Grazing management should be improved for conservation of snow leopards at Gongga Mountain.

Predicting Habitat Suitability of Snow Leopards in the Western Himalayan Mountains, India. Singh R, Krausman PR, Pandey P, Maheshwari A, Rawal RS, Sharma S, Shekhar R. Biology Bulletin. 2020 Nov


The population of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is declining across their range, due to poaching, habitat fragmentation, retaliatory killing, and a decrease of wild prey species. Obtaining information on rare and cryptic predators living in remote and rugged terrain is important for making conservation and management strategies. We used the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) ecological niche modeling framework to predict the potential habitat of snow leopards across the western Himalayan region, India. The model was developed using 34 spatial species occurrence points in the western Himalaya, and 26 parameters including, prey species distribution, temperature, precipitation, land use and land cover (LULC), slope, aspect, terrain ruggedness and altitude. Thirteen variables contributed 98.6% towards predicting the distribution of snow leopards. The area under the curve (AUC) score was high (0.994) for the training data from our model, which indicates predictive ability of the model. The model predicted that there was 42 432 km2 of potential habitat for snow leopards in the western Himalaya region. Protected status was available for 11 247 km2 (26.5%), but the other 31 185 km2 (73.5%) of potential habitat did not have any protected status. Thus, our approach is useful for predicting the distribution and suitable habitats and can focus field surveys in selected areas to save resources, increase survey success, and improve conservation efforts for snow leopards.

Relative influence of wild prey and livestock abundance on carnivore‐caused livestock predation G Khanal, C Mishra, K Ramesh Suryawanshi – Ecology and Evolution 2020 Aug

Shen Q. The Effects of Climate Change on Snow Leopards at the Hengduan Mountain Region. InIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2020 Aug

Spatial variation in population-density, movement and detectability of snow leopards in 2 a multiple use landscape in Spiti Valley, Trans-Himalaya. Sharma RK, Sharma K, Borchers D, Bhatnagar YV, Suryawanshi KS, Mishra C. bioRxiv. 2020 Jan

[HTML] Patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and other large carnivores in the Central Himalayas, Nepal
M Chetri, M Odden, O Devineau, P Wegge – Global Ecology and …, 2019 – Elsevier

[HTML] Livestock depredation by snow leopard and Tibetan wolf: Implications for herders’ livelihoods in Wangchuck Centennial National Park, Bhutan
Y Jamtsho, O Katel – Pastoralism, 2019 – pastoralismjournal.springeropen

[HTML] Estimating snow leopard density using fecal DNA in a large landscape in north-central Nepal
M Chetri, M Odden, K Sharma, Ø Flagstad… – Global Ecology and …, 2019 – Elsevier

[HTML] Responses of snow leopards, wolves and wild ungulates to livestock grazing in the Zorkul Strictly Protected Area, Tajikistan
K Karimov, SM Kachel, K Hackländer – PloS one, 2018

The snow leopard and cultural landscape in contemporary Kazakhstan. White KD. society & animals. 2018 Nov


The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is commonly seen in the cultural landscape within the Republic of Kazakhstan. This contrasts rather starkly with the endangered species’ presence on the natural landscape there. Three contemporary cultural landscape sightings of the snow leopard in Kazakhstan—the Almaty zoological park, the Kazakhstan 2030 strategy initiative, and the 2011 Asian Winter Games—are explored here. The positive imagery and symbolism linking the snow leopard to the Republic of Kazakhstan cements the non-human animal’s status as an unofficial state symbol. The borderlands of snow leopard landscapes, those spaces of cultural and natural environmental overlap, are vital for conservation efforts. Reincorporating non-human animals into social science research offers the opportunity for cultural landscape investigations. For the snow leopard, cultural landscape research may prove as important as traditional natural landscape research in Kazakhstan and throughout this majestic non-human animal’s territorial range.

Sympatric snow leopards and Tibetan wolves:coexistence of large carnivores with human-driven potential competition
A Bocci, S Lovari, MZ Khan, E Mori – European Journal of Wildlife …, 2017

[HTML] Snow leopard and Himalayan wolf: food habits and prey selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal
M Chetri, M Odden, P Wegge – PloS one, 2017

Snow Leopard prey and diet
D Mallon, RB Harris, P Wegge – Snow Leopards, 2016

Livestock predation by snow leopards: conflicts and the search for solutions
C Mishra, SR Redpath, KR Suryawanshi – Snow Leopards, 2016 – Elsevier

Conservation of snow leopards: spill-over benefits for other carnivores?
JS Alexander, JJ Cusack, C Pengju, S Kun, P Riordan – Oryx, 2016

Status assessment of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and other large mammals in the Kyrgyz Alay, using community knowledge corrected for imperfect …
J Taubmann, K Sharma, KZ Uulu, JE Hines, C Mishra – Oryx, 2016

Living on the edge: Depletion of wild prey and survival of the Snow Leopard
S Lovari, C Mishra – Snow Leopards, 2016

Status of the mountain ungulate prey of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in the Tost Local Protected Area, South Gobi, Mongolia
L Tumursukh, KR Suryawanshi, C Mishra… – Oryx, 2016

[HTML] Patterns of snow leopard site use in an increasingly human-dominated landscape
JS Alexander, AM Gopalaswamy, K Shi, J Hughes… – PloS one, 2016

Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards
J Alexander, P Chen, P Damerell, W Youkui… – Biological …, 2015

Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia
Ö Johansson, T McCarthy, G Samelius, H Andrén… – Biological …, 2015

Snow leopard conservation in Kyrgyzstan: enforcement, education and research activities by the German Society for Nature Conservation (NABU)
B Dexel – Contributed Papers to the Snow Leopard Survival …, 2002

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