The Wolf Intelligencer


Human Altered Landscape / Road Density & Wolves

Resource exploitation efficiency collapses the home range of an apex predator. Dickie M, Serrouya R, Avgar T, McLoughlin P, McNay RS, DeMars C, Boutin S, Ford AT. Ecology.:e3642. 2022


Optimizing energy acquisition and expenditure is a fundamental trade-off for consumers, strikingly reflected in how mobile organisms use space. Several studies have established that.

home range size decreases as resource density increases, but the balance of costs and benefits associated with exploiting a given resource density is unclear. We evaluate how the ability of consumers to exploit their resources through movement (termed “resource exploitation”) interacts with resource density to influence home range size. We then contrast two hypotheses to evaluate how resource exploitation influences home range size across a vast gradient of productivity and density of human-created linear features (roads and seismic lines) that are known to facilitate animal movements. Under the Diffusion Facilitation Hypothesis, linear features are predicted to lead to more diffuse space use and larger home ranges. Under the Exploitation Efficiency Hypothesis, linear features are predicted to increase foraging efficiency, resulting in less space being required to meet energetic demands and therefore smaller home ranges. Using GPS telemetry data from 142 wolves (Canis lupus) distributed over more than 500,000 km2, we found that wolf home range size was influenced by the interaction between resource density and exploitation efficiency. Home range size decreased as linear feature density increased, supporting the Exploitation Efficiency Hypothesis. However, the effect of linear features on home range size diminished in more productive areas, suggesting that exploitation efficiency is of greater importance when resource density is low. These results suggest that smaller home ranges will occur where both linear feature density and primary productivity are higher, thereby increasing regional wolf density.

Multiple lines of evidence for predator and prey responses to caribou habitat restoration. Dickie M, McNay RS, Sutherland GD, Sherman GG, Cody M. Biological Conservation. 2021 Apr

Source-sink dynamics promote wolf persistence in human-modified landscapes: Insights from long-term monitoring. Nakamura M, Rio-Maior H, Godinho R, Petrucci-Fonseca F, Álvares F. Biological Conservation. 2021 Apr

Roads, forestry, and wolves interact to drive moose browsing behavior in Scandinavia. Loosen AE, Devineau O, Zimmermann B, Cromsigt JP, Pfeffer SE, Skarpe C, Marie Mathisen K. Ecosphere. 2021 Jan

Assessing the regional landscape connectivity for multispecies to coordinate on-the-ground needs for mitigating linear infrastructure impact in Brasov–Prahova region. Fedorca A, Popa M, Jurj R, Ionescu G, Ionescu O, Fedorca M.Journal for Nature Conservation. 2020 Sep

Opportunity and peril: how wolves use a dense network of forest roads. Bojarska K, Sulich J, Bachmann S, Okarma H, Theuerkauf J, Gula R. Mammalian Biology. 2020 Mar

Hierarchical, multi‐grain rendezvous site selection by wolves in southern Italy. Ciucci P, Boitani L, Falco M, Maiorano L. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2018 Jul

Wolf visitations close to human residences in Finland: the role of age, residence density, and time of day. Kojola I, Hallikainen V, Mikkola K, Gurarie E, Heikkinen S, Kaartinen S, Nikula A, Nivala V. Biological Conservation. 2016 Jun

Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence. Zimmermann B, Nelson L, Wabakken P, Sand H, Liberg O. Behavioral Ecology. 2014 Jan

Habitat selection of a large carnivore, the red wolf, in a human-altered landscape. Dellinger JA, Proctor C, Steury TD, Kelly MJ, Vaughan MR. Biological Conservation. 2013 Jan

Summer movements, predation and habitat use of wolves in human modified boreal forestsE Gurarie, J Suutarinen, I Kojola, O Ovaskainen Oecologia 2011 Jan

Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Creel S, Rotella JJ. PloS one. 2010

What drives wolves: fear or hunger? Humans, diet, climate and wolf activity patterns. Theuerkauf J. Ethology. 2009

Human activity mediates a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Hebblewhite M, White CA, Nietvelt CG, McKenzie JA, Hurd TE, Fryxell JM, Bayley SE, Paquet PC. Ecology. 2005 Aug

Finnish wolves avoid roads and settlements. In Annales Zoologici Fennici (pp. 523-532). Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Kaartinen, S., Kojola, I. and Colpaert, A., 2005 Jan

Spatiotemporal segregation of wolves from humans in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Theuerkauf J, Jȩdrzejewski W, Schmidt K, Gula R. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2003 Oct

Road density as a factor in habitat selection by wolves and other carnivores in the Great Lakes Region. Kohn BE, Thiel R, Hansen JL. Carnivore Conservation in the Twenty-first Century. 2001

Wolf population survival in an area of high road density. Mech LD. American Midland Naturalist. 1989 Apr