The Wolf Intelligencer


Cougar (Puma concolor)

(Puma concolor concolor) (Puma concolor cougar)

Cree -Katalgar, Chickasaw -Ko-Icto, French-Canadian/Algonquin -carcajou, Eire -Erielhonan, “leopard” in Greek -Panther,

Common names
Cougar. Catamount. Painter. Panther. Ghost Cat. Puma. Shadow Cat. Mountain lion.


Eastern cougar – US Fish and Wildlife Service
Mountain Lions | US Forest Service
Puma concolor – USDA Forest Service
Mountain Lion, Cougar, or Puma (Puma concolor) | Idaho Fish and Game
Mountain LionMontana Field Guide
Cougar (Puma concolor)New Mexico Game and Fish
Cougars in WisconsinWisconsin DNR – WI DNR
Mountain Lion Safety (U.S. National Park Service)

Puma – Panthera
The Cougar Fund
Mountain Lion Foundation (California)
Felidae Conservation Fund (California)
Big Cat Rescue (Florida)
Cougar Network
The International Society for Endangered Cats (ISEC) (Canada)
Mountain Lion – Project Coyote
Cougar | Wildlife Land Trust
Puma – The Nature Conservancy
Olympic Cougar Project/Panthera

Journal Articles

Recolonizing carnivores: Is cougar predation behaviorally mediated by bears?. Engebretsen KN, Beckmann JP, Lackey CW, Andreasen A, Schroeder C, Jackson P, Young JK. Ecology and Evolution. 2021 Mar


Conservation and management efforts have resulted in population increases and range expansions for some apex predators, potentially changing trophic cascades and foraging behavior. Changes in sympatric carnivore and dominant scavenger populations provide opportunities to assess how carnivores affect one another. Cougars (Puma concolor) were the apex predator in the Great Basin of Nevada, USA, for over 80 years. Black bears (Ursus americanus) have recently recolonized the area and are known to heavily scavenge on cougar kills. To evaluate the impacts of sympatric, recolonizing bears on cougar foraging behavior in the Great Basin, we investigated kill sites of 31 cougars between 2009 and 2017 across a range of bear densities. We modeled the variation in feeding bout duration (number of nights spent feeding on a prey item) and the proportion of primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in cougar diets using mixed‐effects models. We found that feeding bout duration was driven primarily by the size of the prey item being consumed, local bear density, and the presence of dependent kittens. The proportion of mule deer in cougar diet across all study areas declined over time, was lower for male cougars, increased with the presence of dependent kittens, and increased with higher bear densities. In sites with feral horses (Equus ferus), a novel large prey, cougar consumption of feral horses increased over time. Our results suggest that higher bear densities over time may reduce cougar feeding bout durations and influence the prey selection trade‐off for cougars when alternative, but more dangerous, large prey are available. Shifts in foraging behavior in multicarnivore systems can have cascading effects on prey selection. This study highlights the importance of measuring the impacts of sympatric apex predators and dominant scavengers on a shared resource base, providing a foundation for monitoring dynamic multipredator/scavenger systems.

Diet of puma (Puma concolor) in sheep ranches of central Patagonia (Argentina). Llanos R, Travaini A. Journal of Arid Environments. 2020 Jun

Colheita farmacológica de sêmen de onças-pardas (Puma concolor: Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae). Araujo GR, Paula TA, Deco-Souza T, Morato RG, Bergo LC, Silva LC, Jorge-Neto PN, Sampaio BF. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 2020 Apr

Predictors of puma occupancy indicate prey vulnerability is more important than prey availability in a highly fragmented landscape. Coon CA, Mahoney PJ, Edelblutte E, McDonald Z, Stoner DC. Wildlife Biology. 2020 Mar

” Yellowstone Cougars: Ecology Before and During Wolf Restoration” by Toni K. Ruth, Polly C. Buotte, and Maurice G. Hornocker, 2019.[book review]. Way J. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 2020 Feb

The Elephant in the room: What can we learn from California regarding the use of sport hunting of pumas (Puma concolor) as a management tool?. Laundré JW, Papouchis C. Plos one. 2020 Feb

Cougar (Puma concolor) injury in the United States. Wang YY, Weiser TG, Forrester JD. Wilderness & environmental medicine. 2019 Sep

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