The Wolf Intelligencer


Boreal Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) North America

Boreal Woodland Caribou Herds

Fig. 1

1-Northwest Territories North, 2-Norwest Territories South, 3-Maxhamish, 4-Calendar, 5-Snake-Sahtahneh, 6-Parker, 7-Prophet, 8-Chinchaga, 9-Bistcho, 10-Yates, 11-Caribou Mountains, 12-Little Smoky, 13-Red Earth, 14-West Side Athabasca River, 15-Richardson, 16-East Side Athabasca River, 17-Cold Lake, 18-Nipisi, 19-Slave Lake, 20-Davy-Athabasca, 21-Clearwater, 22-Primrose-Cold Lake, 23-Highrock-Key, 24-Smoothstone-Wapawekka, 25-Steephill-Foster, 26-Suggi-Amisk-Kississing, 27-Pasquia-Bog, 28-The Bog, 29-Kississing, 30-Naosap, 31-Reed, 32-North Interlake, 33-William Lake, 34-Wabowden, 35-Wapisu, 36-Manitoba, 37-Atikaki-Bernes, 38-Owl-Flinstone, 39-Sydney, 40-Bernes, 41-Churchill, 42-Brightsand, 43-Nipigon, 44-Costal, 45-Pagwachuan, 46-Kesgami, 47-Far North, 48-Val-d’Or, 49-Charlevoix, 50-Pipmuacan, 51-Manouane, 52-Manicougan, 53-Quebec, 54-Lac Joseph, 55-Red Wine Mountain, 56-Mealy Mountain, 57-Labrador.


Metapopulation viability analyses of woodland caribou in the Lake Superior range (Doctoral dissertation). Hardy-Cooper B. 2022
(Slate Islands Provincial Park, Michipicoten Island and Caribou Island)


Woodland caribou populations in the Lake Superior range have deteriorated. The caribou’s decline follows industry growth since the 1900s. Islands like those in Slate Islands Provincial Park, Michipicoten Island and Caribou Island offer periods of escape from wolves, the main predators of caribou. Minute mainland populations exist because of translocations conducted in the early 1980s and late 2010s with A.T. Bergerud, and later Gord Eason at the head. Together with the island populations, the safest and most common areas of translocations, the mainland connects what can be considered a metapopulation. Population viability analyses (PVAs), run on Vortex10, were conducted to determine ways of creating a stable metapopulation with consideration given to future arrivals of wolves and future translocations to the Lake Superior islands. The probability of icing events for caribou dispersion were factored into the PVAs. Wolf appearance on islands has been the chronic limiting factor of caribou abundance. Allowing no translocations created a high probability of functional extinction. Specific translocation starting in the present and continuing until 10 years created the highest likelihood of persistence of the metapopulation. The Slate, Michipicoten, and Caribou islands are crucial to metapopulation persistence. Further recovery of the woodland caribou populations in the Lake Superior range should view translocations as a beneficial management approach.

Comparison of Woodland Caribou Calving Areas Determined by Movement Patterns Across Northern Ontario. Walker PD, Rodgers AR, Shuter JL, Thompson ID, Fryxell JM, Cook JG, Cook RC, Merrill EH.The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2020

Conservation through co-occurrence: Woodland caribou as a focal species for boreal biodiversity. Drever CR, Hutchison C, Drever MC, Fortin D, Johnson CA, Wiersma YF. Biological Conservation. 2019 Apr

Modelling Lichen Abundance for Woodland Caribou in a Fire-Driven Boreal Landscape. Silva JA, Nielsen SE, Lamb CT, Hague C, Boutin S. 2019 Nov
(Ontario, Woodland Caribou Provincial Park)

Spatial differences in genetic diversity and northward migration suggest genetic erosion along the boreal caribou southern range limit and continued range retraction. Thompson LM, Klütsch CF, Manseau M, Wilson PJ. Ecology and evolution. 2019 Jun
(Manitoba, Ontario)

Social organization of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in response to decreasing annual snow depth. Jung TS, Larter NC, Allaire DG. Mammal Research. 2019

Woodland caribou as a focal species for boreal biodiversity. Drever CR, Hutchison C, Drever MC, Fortin D, Johnson CA, Wiersma YF. Conservation through co-occurrence: Biological Conservation. 2019 Apr

The biogeography of home range size of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou. Wilson KS, Pond BA, Brown GS, Schaefer JA. Diversity and Distributions. 2019 Feb

Partitioning drivers of spatial genetic variation for a continuously distributed population of boreal caribou: Implications for management unit delineation. Priadka P, Manseau M, Trottier T, Hervieux D, Galpern P, McLoughlin PD, Wilson PJ. Ecology and evolution. 2019 Jan
(Manitoba, Saskatchewan)

Designing and Monitoring the Efficacy of Functional Restoration of Linear Features for Boreal Woodland Caribou: 41. Keim, B.J.L., DeWitt, P.D., Wilson, S.F., Fitzpatrick, J.J., Jenni, N.S. and Lele, S.R., 2019 Jan
(Parker Caribou Range in Northeast British Columbia)

The effects of the Red 003 Fire on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat in the Sydney Range (Doctoral dissertation). Silva, J., 2018 Apr
(Ontario, Sydney caribou)

Disturbance and chronic levels of cortisol in boreal woodland caribou. Ewacha MV, Roth JD, Anderson WG, Brannen DC, Dupont DL. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2017 Sep
(Eastern Manitoba)

Living in a burned landscape: woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) use of postfire residual patches for calving in a high fire–low anthropogenic Boreal Shield ecozone. Skatter HG, Charlebois ML, Eftestøl S, Tsegaye D, Colman JE, Kansas JL, Flydal K, Balicki B. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2017 Aug

An uncertain future for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou): The impact of climate change on winter distribution in Ontario. Masood S, Van Zuiden TM, Rodgers AR, Sharma S. Rangifer. 2017 Mar

The impacts of forest management strategies for woodland caribou vary across biogeographic gradients. Donovan VM, Brown GS, Mallory FF. PloS one. 2017 Feb
(Ontario, the northeastern James Bay Lowlands Region and the Northwestern Boreal Shield Region)

Fecal DNA, hormones, and pellet morphometrics as a noninvasive method to estimate age class: an application to wild populations of Central Mountain and Boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). Flasko A, Manseau M, Mastromonaco G, Bradley M, Neufeld L, Wilson P. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2016 Oct
(Manitoba, North Interlake)

Using Landsat imagery to backcast fire and post-fire residuals in the Boreal Shield of Saskatchewan: implications for woodland caribou management. Kansas J, Vargas J, Skatter HG, Balicki B, McCullum K. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2016 May
(Saskatchewan’s Boreal Shield (SK1))

Stress response of boreal woodland caribou, moose, and wolves to disturbance in eastern Manitoba. Ewacha, M., 2016
(Manitoba, Owl-Flintstone, Atiko, and Bloodvein)

Managing wolves (Canis lupus) to recover threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta. Hervieux D, Hebblewhite M, Stepnisky D, Bacon M, Boutin S. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2014 Nov

Estimating size and trend of the North Interlake woodland caribou population using fecal‐DNA and capture–recapture models. Hettinga PN, Arnason AN, Manseau M, Cross D, Whaley K, Wilson PJ. The Journal of wildlife management. 2012 Aug
(Manitoba, North Interlake woodland caribou herd)

Movement responses by wolves to industrial linear features and their effect on woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta. Latham AD, Latham MC, Boyce MS, Boutin S. Ecological Applications. 2011 Dec

Characterization of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) calving habitat in the boreal plains and boreal shield ecozones of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Dyke C, Manseau M. Rangifer. 2011 Sep
(Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Kississing-Naosap herd)

Recovery of the Chisana caribou herd in the Alaska/Yukon borderlands: captive-rearing trials. Team, C.C.R., 2010

Landscape management for woodland caribou: the protection of forest blocks influences wolf-caribou co-occurrence. Courbin N, Fortin D, Dussault C, Courtois R. Landscape ecology. 2009 Dec

Impacts of climate change on the seasonal distribution of migratory caribou. Sharma S, Couturier S, Cote SD. Global change biology. 2009 Oct

Translocation and recovery efforts for the Telkwa caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou, herd in westcentral British Columbia, 1997-2005. Stronen AV, Paquet P, Herrero S, Sharpe S, Waters N. The Canadian field-naturalist. 2007

Determining effects of an all weather logging road on winter woodland caribou habitat use in south-eastern Manitoba. Schindler, D.W., Walker, D., Davis, T. and Westwood, R., 2006 Apr

Assessing the length of the post-disturbance recovery period for woodland caribou habitat after fire and logging in west-central Manitoba. Metsaranta, J.M., 2006 Apr
(West-central Manitoba, Naosap caribou range)

The role of predation in the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou. Wittmer HU, Sinclair AR, McLellan BN. Oecologia. 2005 Jun

Population dynamics of the endangered mountain ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia, Canada. Wittmer HU, McLellan BN, Seip DR, Young JA, Kinley TA, Watts GS, Hamilton D. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2005 Mar

Vegetation characteristics of forest stands used by woodland caribou and those disturbed by fire or logging in Manitoba. Metsaranta, J.M., Mallory, F.F. and Cross, D.W., 2001
(Manitoba, Kississing-Naosap caribou)

Status of the woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta. Dzus, E. and Cichowski, D.B., 2001.

South Nahanni woodland caribou herd seasonal range use and demography. Gullickson, B. and Manseau, M., 2000

Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors. James AR, Stuart-Smith AK. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2000 Jan

Seasonal distribution and population parameters of woodland caribou in central Manitoba: implications for forestry practices. Brown, K.G., Elliott, C. and Messier, F., 1998 Apr
(Manitoba, Wabowden)

The status of Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada. Farnell R, Florkiewicz R, Kuzyk G, Egli K. Rangifer. 1998 Mar

Status of woodland caribou in Saskatchewan. Rettie J, Rock T, Messier F. Rangifer. 1998 Mar

Dynamics of woodland caribou populations at the southern limit of their range in Saskatchewan. Rettie WJ, Messier F. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1998 Feb

Woodland caribou relative to landscape patterns in northeastern Alberta. Stuart-Smith AK, Bradshaw CJ, Boutin S, Hebert DM, Rippin AB. The Journal of wildlife management. 1997 Jul

Habitat partitioning between woodland caribou and moose in Ontario: the potential role of shared predation risk. Cumming HG, Beange DB, Lavoie G. Rangifer. 1996 Jan

Survival of woodland caribou in commercial forests of northern Ontario. Cumming HG, Beange DB. The Forestry Chronicle. 1993 Oct

Responses of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to clear-cutting in east-central Newfoundland. Chubbs TE, Keith LB, Mahoney SP, McGrath MJ. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1993 Mar

Factors limiting woodland caribou populations and their interrelationships with wolves and moose in southeastern British Columbia. Seip DR. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1992 Aug

Woodland caribou: facts for forest managers. Cumming HG. The Forestry Chronicle. 1992 Aug

Rareness as an antipredator strategy to reduce predation risk for moose and caribou. Bergerud AT. Wildlife 2001: populations. 1992

Fire and woodland caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Schaefer JA, Pruitt Jr WO. Wildlife monographs. 1991 Apr
(Manitoba, Aikens Lake Caribou)

Early-winter habitat of woodland caribou, Selkirk Mountains, British Columbia. Rominger EM, Oldemeyer JL. The Journal of wildlife management. 1989 Jan

The distribution and movement patterns of four woodland caribou herds in Quebec and Labrador. Brown WK, Huot J, Lamothe P, Luttich S, Pare M, Martin GS, Theberge JB. Rangifer. 1986 Jun

Altitudinal movements and summer habitat preferences of woodland caribou in the Kluane Ranges, Oosenbrug SM, Theberge JB. Yukon Territory. Arctic. 1980 Mar

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