The Wolf Intelligencer

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

Beautiful Birds in Italy!

Common Raven (Corvus corax), hooded crow (Corvus cornix), carrion crow (Corvus corone), rook (Corvus frugilegus), European jackdaw (Coloeus monedula), Eurasian magpie (Pica pica pica), Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), Alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus), Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops), European roller (Coracias garrulus), sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos), Eurasian golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), European green woodpecker (Picus viridis), white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis), rock partridge (Alectoris graeca), Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata), goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), lammergeier/ bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), collared pratincole (Glareola pratincola), great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), woodchat shrike (Lanius senator), Eurasian nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus), Alpine swift (Tachymarptis melba), Eurasian coot (Fulica atra), Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus), crag martin (Ptyonoprogne rupestris), greenfinch (Chloris chloris)

Common Raven (Corvus corax)

Rock climbing and raven Corvus corax occurrence depress breeding success of cliff-nesting peregrines Falco peregrinus. Brambilla M, Rubolini D, Guidali F. Ardeola. 2004 Dec
(Northern Italy, south Switzerland)

hooded crow (Corvus cornix)

Analysis of biometric and DNA data to determine the sex of Hooded Crows Corvus cornix in northwest Italy. Giammarino M, Quatto P, Soglia D. Ringing & Migration. 2012 Jun
(5 localities in the Cuneo plain “The results suggest that tarsus and head+bill length provide the best biometric criteria for sex determination in the Hooded Crow, because these measurements do not change with age. We propose linear discriminant functions based on the tarsus and head+bill length, or on the head+bill length alone.”)

carrion crow (Corvus corone)

Does year‐round territoriality rather than habitat saturation explain delayed natal dispersal and cooperative breeding in the carrion crow?. Baglione V, Marcos JM, Canestrari D, Griesser M, Andreotti G, Bardini C, Bogliani G. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2005 Sep
(Northern Italy, “ Conversely in Italy, where adults often abandon their territories after breeding, the natal site does not have any special value for the offspring that hence disperse.”)

rook (Corvus frugilegus)

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in fecal bacteria from rooks commonly wintering throughout Europe. Literak I, Micudova M, Tausova D, Cizek A, Dolejska M, Papousek I, Prochazka J, Vojtech J, Borleis F, Guardone L, Guenther S. Microbial drug resistance. 2012 Dec

European jackdaw (Coloeus monedula)

Nest site and breeding habitat characteristics in urban jackdaws Corvus monedula in Rome (Italy). Salvati L. Acta ornithologica. 2002 Jul
(Rome, Italy “The nest sites and habitat features of the area around nests in a population of Jackdaws breeding in the centre of Rome, Italy, wer
e studied. Occupied nests (n = 41) had a predominantly south-easterly exposure and were located on average 20 ± 8 m above the ground.”)

Eurasian magpie (Pica pica pica)

Aggregation of Eurasian Scops Owls Otus scops Breeding in Magpie Pica pica Nests. Grieco F. Ardea. 2018 Oct
(Southern Italy “Male ScopsOwls clustered around a human-inhabited area with significant noise and lightpollution and avoided the undisturbed forest, which apparently was only used forforaging. .. Scops Owls bred exclusivelyin abandoned Eurasian Magpie Picapicanests, which is unusual for this typi-cally cavity-nesting species and was presumably caused by the lack of alterna-tive sites. The distribution of Magpie nests might thus be the main driver of nest spacing and territorial behaviour of Scops Owls in this presumably nesting site limited population.”)

Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius)

The occurrence and density of three sympatric corvids in a Mediterranean agroecosystem explained by land use. Gianpasquale C, Alberto M. Journal of Ornithology. 2019 Oct
(“The Eurasian Jay typically selects woodland during the breeding season, but can shift its niche to agricultural land. The estimated density for Hooded Crows was higher here than those recorded in other climatic regions, even though the scarce presence of open water has been described as a limiting factor for this species. Finally, our results showed that there is some overlap in niche between these three species. In particular, the niche of the Eurasian Jay and Hooded Crow overlap both during the winter and during the breeding season, whereas the Eurasian Jay niche overlaps with that of the Eurasian Magpie in the winter, which in turn overlaps with that of the Hooded Crow during the breeding season.”)

Alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus)

Potential spatio-temporal mismatching in trophic relationships of Alpine Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) in North-Western Italy. Vallino C, Caprio E, Fabrizio G, Chamberlain DE, Palestrini C, Roggero A, Rolando A. InEOU TURKU 2017 FIN 11th Conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union 2017
(North-Western Italy “This project concerns the potential mismatching between the Alpine Chough (AC), a widespread mountain bird species that occurs almost exclusively above the treeline, and grasshoppers, their most important food source during the reproductive period. A pilot study carried out in summer 2016 in North-Western Italy showed that AC decreased while grasshoppers increased with altitude. This may lead to a potential spatio-temporal mismatch between AC and grasshoppers. We also observed that local ACs didn’t feed only on natural grasslands and pastures, but rather they exploited human food scraps (e.g. at bars and restaurants).”)

peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)

Breeding population of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Lazio, Central Italy: 1983–2017. Brunelli M, Sarrocco S. Ornis Hungarica. 2018 Dec

lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus),

Italian sparrow (Passer italiae)

Eurasian Scops Owls (Otus scops)

Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops),

European roller (Coracias garrulus),

sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus),

white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos),

Eurasian golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus),

black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius),

European green woodpecker (Picus viridis),

white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis),

rock partridge (Alectoris graeca),

Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata),

goshawk (Accipiter gentilis),

Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo),

lammergeier/ bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus),

griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus),

collared pratincole (Glareola pratincola),

great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius),

woodchat shrike (Lanius senator),

Eurasian nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus),

Alpine swift (Tachymarptis melba),

Eurasian coot (Fulica atra),

Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus),

Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus),

storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus),

crag martin (Ptyonoprogne rupestris),

greenfinch (Chloris chloris)

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