Michigan / Minnesota / Wisconsin / Illinois / Indiana / Nebraska / North Dakota / South Dakota / Iowa

Wolves in Voyageurs National Park
Wolves in Superior National Forest

Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Great Plains Wolf (Canis lupus nubilus)
Eastern Timber Wolf (Canis lycaon, Canis lupus lycaon)

Population Statistics [Approximately 2,200-2,300 (2015)]

Legal Status; federally protected as “threatened” (as of December 2014)

US Fish and Wildlife Service (Gray Wolves in the Western Great Lakes)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Wolf Population Expansion in Minnesota
Long Term Gray Wolf Monitering- Superior National Forest
Gray Wolf – Voyageurs National Park
Voyageurs Wolf Project


Howling For Wolves (Hopkins, Minnesota)
Northwoods Wolf Alliance (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (Apple Valley, Minnesota)

Minnesota News Resources & Publications
Duluth News Tribune (Duluth, Minnesota)
The St. Paul Journal (St. Paul, Minnesota)


Journal Articles

Injury scores and spatial responses of wolves following capture: Cable restraints versus foothold traps. Gese EM, Terletzky PA, Erb JD, Fuller KC, Grabarkewitz JP, Hart JP, Humpal C, Sampson BA, Young JK. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2019

Do wolves hunt freshwater fish in spring as a food source?
TD Gable, SK Windels, AT Homkes – Mammalian Biology, 2018

How Minnesota wolf hunter and trapper attitudes and risk-and benefit-based beliefs predict wolf management preferences
SA Schroeder, DC Fulton, L Cornicelli… – Human dimensions of …, 2018

M Carstensen, JH Giudice, EC Hildebrand… – Journal of wildlife …, 2017 –

River Otter (Lontra canadensis) Killed by Wolves (Canis lupus) during Winter in Northern Minnesota; TD Gable, SK Windels, IC Rautio

Weekly Summer Diet of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in Northeastern Minnesota
TD Gable, SK Windels, JG Bruggink, SM Barber-Meyer – The American Midland …, 2018

Seasonal diet composition of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota determined by scat analysis
Y Chenaux-Ibrahim – 2015 – conservancy.umn.edu

Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf‐depredation control in Minnesota. Harper EK, Paul WJ, Mech LD, Weisberg S. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2008 Apr

Landscape use and movements of wolves in relation to livestock in a wildland‐agriculture matrix. Chavez AS, Gese EM. The Journal of wildlife management. 2006 Oct

Attitudes of rural landowners toward wolves in northwestern Minnesota. Chavez AS, Gese EM, Krannich RS. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2005 Jun

α1-Antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves. Mech LD, Federoff NE. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2002 May

Assessing factors that may predispose Minnesota farms to wolf depredations on cattle LD Mech, EK Harper, TJ Meier, WJ Paul – Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2000 Oct

Wolf and bear predation on white-tailed deer fawns in northeastern Minnesota. Kunkel KE, Mech LD. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1994 Sep

Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1969–1989. Gese EM, Mech LD. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1991 Dec

Effect of snow depth on wolf activity and prey selection in north central Minnesota. Fuller TK. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1991 Feb

Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology of a newly protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. Fritts, S.H. and Mech, L.D., 1981

Ecology of the timber wolf in northeastern Minnesota. Van Ballenberghe V, Erickson AW, Byman D. Wildlife Monographs. 1975 Apr